Advertisement

Memory, War, and Mnemonical In/Security: A Comparison of Lithuania and Ukraine

  • Dovilė Budrytė
Chapter

Abstract

This chapter analyzes the interaction of discourses associated with World War II and its aftermath and the formation of related cultural, social, and political practices in Ukraine in comparison with Lithuania. The focus is on what can be considered a hegemonic war memory in the two countries—discourses about the anti-Soviet partisans and their memorialization. Political developments described as “revolutions” (Sąjūdis in Lithuania, the Orange Revolution and Euromaidan in Ukraine) have coincided with major discursive changes regarding memory politics. It is during those times that narratives extolling the virtues of anti-Soviet partisans and dwelling on losses associated with national tragedies, described as genocides, have attracted more supporters willing to “defend history” in both countries.

Notes

Acknowledgement

Research for this contribution was supported by a SEED grant awarded by Georgia Gwinnett College in 2016–2017. I would like to thank Charlie Marburger and Mandy Crane, my research assistants, for their help with this article. Previous versions of this contribution were presented at the European International Studies Association’s Annual Conference (EISA) in Barcelona in September 2017 and the Association for the Study of Nationalities Annual Conference at Columbia University in May 2017. I would like to thank the discussants and the participants of these conferences for their comments and suggestions.

References

  1. Berenskoetter, F. 2014. “Parameters of a National Biography.” European Journal of International Relations 20 (1): 262–88.Google Scholar
  2. Burakovskiy, A. 2011. “Holocaust Remembrance in Ukraine: Memorialization of the Jewish Tragedy at Babi Yar.” Nationalities Papers 39 (3): 371–89.Google Scholar
  3. Davoliūtė, V. 2016. “Two-Speed Memory and Ownership of the Past.” Transitions Online, September 1. http://www.tol.org/client/article/26264-two-speed-memory-and-ownership-of-the-past.html. Accessed January 28, 2018.
  4. Geleževičius, R. 2003. Holokausto teisingumas ir restitucija Lietuvoje atkūrus nepriklausomybę, 1990–2003. Vilnius: Lietuvos teisės universitetas.Google Scholar
  5. Genocide and Resistance Research Center of Lithuania. n.d.-a. “The Armed Anti-Soviet Resistance in Lithuania in 1944–1953.” http://genocid.lt/centras/en/2390/a/. Accessed January 28, 2018.
  6. Genocide and Resistance Research Center of Lithuania. n.d.-b. “Tremties ir kalinimo vietos.” http://genocid.lt/centras/lt/1491/a/. Accessed January 28, 2018.
  7. Girnius, K. K. 1990. Partizanų kovos Lietuvoje. Vilnius: Mokslo leidykla.Google Scholar
  8. Himka, J. 2012. “Interventions: Challenging the Myths of Twentieth-Century Ukrainian History.” In The Convolutions of Historical Politics, edited by M. Lipman and A. I. Miller. Budapest: Central European University Press.Google Scholar
  9. Kasianov, G. 2008. “Revisiting the Great Famine of 1932–33: Politics of Memory and Public Consciousness (Ukraine after 1991).” In Past in the Making: Historical Revisionism in Central Europe After 1989, edited by M. Kopeček. Budapest: Central European University Press.Google Scholar
  10. Liber, G. O. 2016. Total Wars and the Making of Modern Ukraine, 1914–1954. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.Google Scholar
  11. Makhotina, J. 2016. “We, They and Ours: On the Holocaust Debate in Lithuania.” Cultures of History Forum, September 27. http://www.cultures-of-history.uni-jena.de/debates/lithuania/we-they-and-ours-on-the-holocaust-debate-in-lithuania/. Accessed January 28, 2018.
  12. Mälksoo, M. 2012. “Nesting Orientalisms at War: World War II and the ‘Memory War’ in Eastern Europe.” In Orientalism and War, edited by T. Barkawi and K. Stanski. New York: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
  13. Mälksoo, M. 2015. “‘Memory Must Be Defended’: Beyond the Politics of Mnemonical Security.” Security Dialogue 46 (3): 221–37.Google Scholar
  14. Marples, D. R. 2010. “Anti-Soviet Partisans and Ukrainian Memory.” East European Politics and Societies 24 (1): 26–43.Google Scholar
  15. Nabers, D. 2015. A Poststructuralist Discourse Theory of Global Politics. Houndmills, Basingstoke, and New York: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  16. Petrauskienė, A. 2017. Partizaninio karo vietos: Įamžinimas ir įpaveldinimas nepriklausomoje Lietuvoje. Unpublished PhD dissertation, Vilnius University, Vilnius.Google Scholar
  17. Pettai, E., and V. Pettai. 2015. Transitional and Retrospective Justice in the Baltic States. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  18. Portnov, A. 2008. “Pluralität der Erinnerung. Denkmäler und Geschichtspolitik in der Ukraine.” Osteuropa 58 (6): 197–210.Google Scholar
  19. Portnov, A. 2013. “Memory Wars in Post-Soviet Ukraine (1991–2010).” In Memory and Theory in Eastern Europe, edited by U. Blacker, A. Etkind, and J. Fedor. Houndmills, Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  20. Rudling, P. A. 2011a. “Multiculturalism, Memory and Ritualization: Ukrainian Nationalist Monuments in Edmonton, Alberta.” Nationalities Papers 39 (5): 733–68.Google Scholar
  21. Rudling, P. A. 2011b. “The OUN, the UPA and the Holocaust: A Study in the Manufacturing of Historical Myths.” The Carl Beck Papers in Russian and Eastern European Studies, no. 2107. The Center for Russian and East European Studies, University of Pittsburgh.Google Scholar
  22. Shevel, O. 2011. “The Politics of Memory in a Divided Society: A Comparison of Post-Franco Spain and Post-Soviet Ukraine.” Slavic Review 70 (1): 137–64.Google Scholar
  23. Shevel, O. 2016. “The Battle for Historical Memory in Postrevolutionary Ukraine.” Current History 115 (783): 258–63.Google Scholar
  24. Snyder, T. 2010. “A Fascist Hero in Democratic Kiev.” The New York Review of Books, February 24. http://www.nybooks.com/daily/2010/02/24/a-fascist-hero-in-democratic-kiev/. Accessed January 28, 2018.
  25. Subotić, J. 2016. “Narrative, Ontological Security and Foreign Policy Change.” Foreign Policy Analysis 12 (1): 610–27.Google Scholar
  26. Tabarovsky, I. 2016. “Babi Yar at 75: Filling in the Blanks in Ukrainian History,” September 27. Woodrow Wilson Center, Kennan Institute. https://www.wilsoncenter.org/article/babi-yar-75-filling-the-blanks-ukrainian-history. Accessed January 28, 2018.
  27. Umland, A. 2017. “The Ukrainian Government’s Memory Institute Against the West.” New Eastern Europe, March 7. http://neweasterneurope.eu/articles-and-commentary/2284-the-ukrainian-government-s-memory-institute-against-the-west. Accessed January 28, 2018.
  28. Valatka, R. 2015. “Ką pagerbė Lietuva—partizanų vadą Generolą Vėtrą ar žydų žudiką?” (Whom Did Lithuania Honor: The Leader of Partisans General Vėtra or a Jew killer?). Delfi, July 26. http://www.delfi.lt/news/ringas/lit/r-valatka-ka-pagerbe-lietuva-partizanu-vada-generola-vetra-ar-zydu-zudika.d?id=68576988. Accessed January 28, 2018.
  29. Vanagaitė, R. 2016. Mūsiškiai. Vilnius: Alma Littera.Google Scholar
  30. Weldes, J. 1999. Constructing National Interests: The United States and the Cuban Missile Crisis. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.Google Scholar
  31. Widmaier, W. W., M. Blyth, and L. Seabroke. 2007. “Exogenous Shocks or Endogenous Constructions? The Meanings of Wars and Crises.” International Studies Quarterly 51 (4): 747–59.Google Scholar
  32. Wylegała, A. 2017. “Managing the Difficult Past: Ukrainian Collective Memory and Public Debates on History.” Nationalities Papers 45 (5): 780–97.Google Scholar
  33. Zhurzhenko, T. 2011. “‘Capital of Despair’: Holodomor Memory and Political Conflicts in Kharkiv After the Orange Revolution.” East European Politics and Societies 25 (3): 597–639.Google Scholar
  34. Zhurzhenko, T. 2015a. “Shared Memory Culture? Nationalizing the ‘Great Patriotic War’ in the Ukrainian–Russian Borderlands.” In Memory and Change in Europe: Eastern Perspectives, edited by M. Pakier and J. Wawrzyniak. New York and Oxford: Berghahn Books.Google Scholar
  35. Zhurzhenko, T. 2015b. “Russia’s Never-Ending War Against ‘Fascism’: Memory Politics in the Russian–Ukrainian Conflict.” Eurozine, May 8. http://www.eurozine.com/russias-never-ending-war-against-fascism/. Accessed January 28, 2018.

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Dovilė Budrytė
    • 1
  1. 1.Political ScienceGeorgia Gwinnett CollegeLawrencevilleUSA

Personalised recommendations