Rethinking the Chile–Australia Transpacific Relationship in Light of Globalisation and Economic Progress

  • Irene Strodthoff
Part of the Studies of the Americas book series (STAM)


The transformations brought about by globalisation, and the ramifications of economic progress epitomised by neoliberal projects have reconfigured transnational relationships, forging unexpected coalitions and challenging dominant paradigms of geopolitical power. This article sheds light on how Australia and Chile, two countries generally considered to be distant, have reshaped their bilateral relations and renegotiated projections of national identity in light of the implications of economic progress and trade. By applying Critical Discourse Analysis tools, this article examines a selection of Australian and Chilean governmental discourses released between 2010 and 2017 following the signing by both countries of a Free Trade Agreement. It is argued that globalisation, as well as the increasing visibility of neoliberal policies, has led to a closer bilateral relationship, albeit in a context of uneven flows of capital and intra-national social inequalities.



I thank the Chilean National Academy of Political and Strategic Studies, as well as The University of Sydney, for their support in developing this article. I also thank Dr. Philipp Schorch of Deakin University for his enlightening contributions to previous versions.


  1. Aguilar, Carlos. 2010. South-South Relations in the New International Geopolitics. Global Studies Review 6 (3).
  2. Almond, Gabriel, et al. 1985. Introduction. In Progress and Its Discontents, ed. Gabriel Almond et al., 2nd ed., 1–15. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  3. Anderson, Benedict. 1983. Imagined Communities: Reflections on the Origin and Spread of Nationalism. London: Verso.Google Scholar
  4. Asian Development Bank. 2016. Asian Development Outlook 2016: Asia’s Potential Growth. Accessed November 20, 2016.
  5. Aylwin, Patricio. 1993. Discurso de S. E. el Presidente de la República, D. Patricio Aylwin Azócar, ante chilenos residentes en Canberra. Corporación Justicia y Democracia, October 6. Transcription in Word Format.Google Scholar
  6. Bachelet, Michelle. 2015. Mensaje Presidencial, 21 de Mayo de 2015. Gobierno de Chile, May 21.
  7. Berthoud, Gérald. 2010. Market. In The Development Dictionary: A Guide to Knowledge as Power, ed. Wolfgang Sachs, 2nd ed., 74–94. London: Zed Books.Google Scholar
  8. Biddle, Nicholas, and Francis Markham. 2017. What Income Inequality Looks Like Across Australia. The Conversation, July 5.
  9. Bishop, Julie. 2015. Australia and Chile: Strong Partners Linking Asia and Latin America. Australian Minister for Foreign Affairs, 2 July.
  10. Blainey, Geoffrey. 2001. The Tyranny of Distance: How Distance Shaped Australia’s History, 3rd ed. Sydney: Pan Macmillan Australia.Google Scholar
  11. Bryan, Dick. 2001. Global Accumulation and Accounting for National Economic Identity. Review of Radical Political Economics 33 (1): 57–77.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Carr, Barry. 2014. Latin America: Changing Political Realities and Trends 2000–2014. In Australia and Latin America Challenges and Opportunities in the New Millennium, ed. Barry Carr and John Minns, 1–23. Canberra: ANU Press.Google Scholar
  13. Carr, Barry, and John Minns. 2014. Introduction. In Australia and Latin America Challenges and Opportunities in the New Millennium, ed. Barry Carr and John Minns, xvii–xxix. Canberra: ANU Press.Google Scholar
  14. Castells, Manuel. 1997. The Power of Identity. Oxford: Blackwell.Google Scholar
  15. Castells, Manuel. 2000a. Globalización, Estado y sociedad civil: El nuevo contexto histórico de los derechos humanos. Isegoría 22: 5–17.Google Scholar
  16. Castells, Manuel. 2000b. The Rise of the Network Society, vol. 1, 2nd ed. Oxford: Blackwell.Google Scholar
  17. Castells, Manuel. 2005. Globalización, desarrollo y democracia: Chile en el contexto mundial. Santiago: Fondo de Cultura Económica.Google Scholar
  18. Castells, Manuel. 2010. Globalisation and Identity. Quaderns de la Mediterrània 14: 89–98.Google Scholar
  19. Chile logra reducir su pobreza a un 11,7% en 2015. 2016. El Economista, September 22.
  20. Cientos de personas marcharon en Chile en contra del Tratado Transpacífico. 2016. El Mercurio on Line, January 23.
  21. Ciobo, Steven. 2017. Doorstop: Commonwealth Trade Ministers’ Meeting. Australian Government, March 9.
  22. Correa, Loreto. 2012. Malestar ciudadano en Chile: De la expectativa a la desilusión. In La inseguridad y la seguridad ciudadana en América latina, ed. José A. Zavaleta, 93–134. Buenos Aires: Consejo Latinoamericano de Ciencias Sociales CLACSO.Google Scholar
  23. De Cillia, Rudolf, et al. 1999. The Discursive Construction of National Identities. Discourse and Society 10 (2): 149–173.Google Scholar
  24. Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade. 2017a. Chile Country Brief. Australian Government, December.
  25. Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade. 2017b. Australia’s Top 25 Exports, Goods and Services. Australian Government, June.
  26. Dirección General de Relaciones Económicas Internacionales del Ministerio de Relaciones Exteriores de Chile. 2013. Inversión Directa de Capitales Chilenos en Australia 1990 – Diciembre 2011. Gobierno de Chile, April 3.
  27. Edwards, Lindy. 2007. How to Argue with an Economist: Reopening Political Debate in Australia, 2nd ed. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Escobar, Arturo. 2010. Planning. In The Development Dictionary: A Guide to Knowledge as Power, ed. Wolfgang Sachs, 2nd ed., 145–160. London: Zed Books.Google Scholar
  29. Giddens, Anthony. 1990. The Consequences of Modernity. Cambridge: Polity Press.Google Scholar
  30. Gillard, Julia. 2010. PM Julia Gillard’s Speech to the National Press Club—Moving Forward to a Stronger and Fairer Economy. The Australian, July 15.
  31. Gómez, Juan Carlos. 2008. Gobernabilidad social en los tiempos de Michelle Bachelet: Política, sociedad civil y ciudadanía. In La nueva política en América Latina: rupturas y continuidades, ed. Carlos Moreira et al., 147–170. Montevideo: Ediciones Trilce.Google Scholar
  32. Hall, Stuart. 1992a. Introduction: Who Needs Identity? In Questions of Cultural Identity, ed. Stuart Hall and Paul du Gay, 1–17. London: Sage.Google Scholar
  33. Hall, Stuart. 1992b. The West and the Rest: Discourse and Power. In Formations of Modernity, ed. Stuart Hall and Bram Gieben, 276–280. Cambridge: Polity Press.Google Scholar
  34. Hardt, Michael, and Antonio Negri. 2000. Empire. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  35. Harvey, David. 1989. The Condition of Posmodernity: An Enquiry into the Origins of Cultural Change. New York: Blackwell.Google Scholar
  36. Hau’ofa, Epeli. 1998. The Ocean in Us. The Contemporary Pacific 10 (2): 391–410.Google Scholar
  37. Heritage Foundation. 2017. 2017 Index of Economic Freedom. Top Ten Countries, 2017.
  38. Hidalgo Flor, Francisco. n.d. Contrahegemonía. CECIES Pensamiento Latinoamericano y Alternativo. Accessed January 23, 2016.
  39. Kenyon, Don, and Pierre van der Eng. 2014. Australia and Latin America: Shared Experiences and Prospects for a New Partnership. In Australia and Latin America Challenges and Opportunities in the New Millennium, ed. Barry Carr and John Minns, 141–166. Canberra: ANU Press.Google Scholar
  40. Ker, Peter. 2015. Chile and Australia Ponder Life After the Boom Together. The Sydney Morning Herald, September 11.
  41. Larraín, Jorge. 2000. Identity and Modernity in Latin America. Cambridge: Polity Press.Google Scholar
  42. Larraín, Jorge. 2010. Identidad chilena y el Bicentenario. Revista de Estudios Públicos 120: 5–30.Google Scholar
  43. Latouche, Serge. 2010. Standard of Living. In The Development Dictionary: A Guide to Knowledge as Power, ed. Wolfgang Sachs, 2nd ed., 279–294. London: Zed Books.Google Scholar
  44. Macgregor, John, and Jennifer Slack. 2005. Culture + Technology: A Primer. New York: Peter Lang.Google Scholar
  45. Marti, Gaëlle. 2015. The 10 Most Competitive Countries in Latin America. World Economic Forum, September 30.
  46. Ministerio de Desarrollo Social. 2013. Encuesta Casen 2006–2013. Gobierno de Chile.
  47. Ministerio de Minería. 2014. Ministra de Minería desde Australia: ‘Nos interesa convertir a Chile en un polo de innovación minera en Sudamérica. Leaders and Mining, October 8.
  48. Moran, Anthony. 2005. Australia: Nation, Belonging and Globalization. New York: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Murray, Kevin. 2010. Beyond the Southern Hemisphere: Keys to the South. Australian Humanities Review 44: 23–38.Google Scholar
  50. Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). 2017. Topics 2017: Inequality and Income.
  51. Piñera, Sebastián. 2012. The Pacific Alliance and Chile, a View Towards the Asia-Pacific Through a 21st Century Perspective. Lowy Institute, online video, September 10.
  52. Pusey, Michael. 2003. The Experience of Middle Australia: The Dark Side of Economic Reform. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Quiggin, John. 1997. Economic Rationalism. Crossings 2 (1): 3–12.Google Scholar
  54. Rahnema, Majid. 2010. Poverty. In The Development Dictionary: A Guide to Knowledge as Power, ed. Wolfgang Sachs, 2nd ed., 174–194. London: Zed Books.Google Scholar
  55. Robb, Andrew. 2014. Australia y Chile, socios del Pacífico. El Mercurio on Line, December 12.
  56. Rudd, Kevin. 2010. Launch of the Australia Americas Awards. Australian Minister for Foreign Affairs, December 18.
  57. Sachs, Wolfgang. 2010a. Introduction. In The Development Dictionary: A Guide to Knowledge as Power, ed. Wolfgang Sachs, 2nd ed., xv–xx. London: Zed Books.Google Scholar
  58. Sachs, Wolfgang. 2010b. Preface to the New Edition. In The Development Dictionary: A Guide to Knowledge as Power, ed. Wolfgang Sachs, 2nd ed., i–xiv. London: Zed Books.Google Scholar
  59. Salazar, Juan. 1999. Chile y la comunidad del Pacífico, 2nd ed. Santiago: Editorial Universitaria.Google Scholar
  60. Salazar, Juan Francisco. 2016. Book Reviews—Review of Chile and Australia: Contemporary Transpacific Connections from the South, by Irene Strodthoff. Journal of Latin American Studies 48 (1): 187–189.Google Scholar
  61. Sbert, José María. 2010. Progress. In The Development Dictionary: A Guide to Knowledge as Power, ed. Wolfgang Sachs, 2nd ed., 212–217. London: Zed Books.Google Scholar
  62. Schorch, Philipp. 2013. The Hermeneutics of Transpacific Assemblages. Alfred Deakin Research Institute Working Paper Series 2 (41): 1–15.Google Scholar
  63. Shiva, Vandana. 2010. Resources. In The Development Dictionary: A Guide to Knowledge as Power, ed. Wolfgang Sachs, 2nd ed., 228–242. London: Zed Books.Google Scholar
  64. Straussfogel, Debra. 1997. World-Systems Theory: Towards a Heuristic and Pedagogic Conceptual Tool. Economic Geography 73 (1): 118–130.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Strodthoff, Irene. 2014. Chile and Australia: Contemporary Transpacific Connections from the South. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Truman, Harry. 1949. Inaugural Address of Harry S. Truman. Lillian Goldman Law Library University of Yale, January 20.
  67. Turnbull, Malcolm. 2015. Launch of the National Innovation and Science Agenda. Prime Minister of Australia, December 7.–12-07/launch-national-innovation-and-science-agenda.
  68. Van Dijk, Teun. 2008. Discourse and Context. New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  69. Wallerstein, Immanuel. 1976. Semi-Peripheral Countries and the Contemporary World Crisis. Theory and Society 3 (4): 461–483.Google Scholar
  70. Wallerstein, Immanuel. 1979. The Rise and Future Demise of the World Capitalist System: Concepts for Comparative Analysis (1979). In The Globalization and Development Reader: Perspectives on Development and Global Change, ed. J. Timmons Roberts and Amy Bellone Hite, 95–113. Oxford: Blackwell, 2007.Google Scholar
  71. Wallerstein, Immanuel. 2004. Cultures in Conflict? Who Are We? Who Are the Others? Journal of the Interdisciplinary Crossroads 1 (3): 505–521.Google Scholar
  72. Ward, Gerard. 1989. Earth’s Empty Quarter? The Pacific Islands in a Pacific Century. The Geographical Journal 155 (2): 235–246.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Irene Strodthoff
    • 1
  1. 1.The University of SydneySydneyAustralia

Personalised recommendations