History and Characteristics of Pentecostal Christianity in Zimbabwe

  • Lovemore Togarasei


This chapter traces the history of Zimbabwean Pentecostal Christianity from its genesis to the present picture. Consequently, it first discusses the introduction of the Apostolic Faith Mission in Zimbabwe before moving on to discuss some of the Pentecostal churches born out of this church. This is followed by a discussion of the 1980s and 1990s explosion of American type Pentecostal churches and the current Pentecostal charismatic churches that seem to be sweeping the Christian landscape in the country.


  1. Anderson, A. 2004. Pentecostalism in Africa: An overview. ORITA: Ibadan Journal of Religious Studies 36 (1&2): 38–56.Google Scholar
  2. Baur, J. 1994. 2000 years of Christianity in Africa: An African history 62–1992. Nairobi: Paulines Publication-Africa.Google Scholar
  3. Chandomba, L. 2007. The history of apostolic faith mission and other Pentecostal missions of South Africa. AuthorHouse: Keynes.Google Scholar
  4. Corten, A., and R. Marshal-Fratani. 2001. Introduction. In Between Babel to Pentecost: Transnational Pentecostalism in Africa and Latin America, ed. A. Corten and R. Marshal-Fratani, 1–21. London: Hurst and Company.Google Scholar
  5. Cox, H. 1996. Fire from heaven: The rise of Pentecostal spirituality and the reshaping of religion in the twenty-first century. London: Cassell.Google Scholar
  6. Dempster, M.W., B.D. Klaus, and D. Petersen. 1999. The globalisation of Pentecostalism: A religion made to travel. Oxford: Regnum Books.Google Scholar
  7. Deuschle, T. 2003. Building people building dreams: How a church can change a nation. Harare: Hear the Word Publishing.Google Scholar
  8. Gelpi, D.L. 1971. Pentecostalism: A theological view. New York: Paulist Press.Google Scholar
  9. Gifford, P. 1988. The new crusaders: Christianity and the new right in southern Africa. London: Pluto Press.Google Scholar
  10. ———. 2001. The complex provenance of some elements of African Pentecostal theology. In Between Babel and Pentecost: Transnational Pentecostalism in Africa and Latin America, ed. A. Corten and R. Marshal-Fratani, 62–79. London: Hurst and Company.Google Scholar
  11. Gunda, M.R. 2010. A critical analysis of the survival and relevance of post-colonial African initiated (apostolic) churches. In Faith in the City: The role and place of religion in Harare, ed. L. Togarasei and E. Chitando, 41–62. Uppsala: Swedish Science Press.Google Scholar
  12. Hallencreutz, C.F. 1999. Religion in the City. In Sites of struggle: Essays in Zimbabwe’s urban history, ed. B. Raftopoulos and T. Yoshikuni, 205–225. Harare: Weaver Press.Google Scholar
  13. Hollenweger, W.J. 1997. Pentecostalism: Origins and developments worldwide. Massachusetts: Hendrikson Publishers.Google Scholar
  14. Hwata, B. 2005. An Investigation of Different Phases of Pentecostal Experience in the Apostolic Faith Mission (AFM), unpublished MTh thesis, UNISA, 2005.Google Scholar
  15. Isichei, E. 1995. A history of Christianity in Africa: From antiquity to the present. Grand Rapids: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co..Google Scholar
  16. Jules-Rosette, B. 1975. African apostles: Ritual and conversion in the church of John Marange. London: Cornell University Press.Google Scholar
  17. Machingura, F. 2011. The significance of glossolalia in the apostolic faith mission, Zimbabwe. Studies in World Christianity 17 (1): 12–28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Martin, D. 2002. Pentecostalism: The world their parish. Oxford: Blackwell Publishers.Google Scholar
  19. Mate, R. 2002. Wombs as God’s laboratories: Pentecostal discourses of femininity in Zimbabwe. Africa 72 (4): 549–568.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Maxwell, D. 1998. Delivered form the Spirit of poverty? Pentecostalism, prosperity and modernity in Zimbabwe. Journal of Religion in Africa 28 (3): 350–374.Google Scholar
  21. ———. 2002. Christianity without frontiers: Shona missionaries and transnational Pentecostalism in Africa. In Christianity and the African imagination: Essays in honour of Adrian Hastings, ed. D. Maxwell and I. Lawrie, 295–332. Leiden: Brill.Google Scholar
  22. ———. 2006. African gifts of the Spirit: Pentecostalism and the rise of a Zimbabwean transnational religious movement. Harare: Weaver Press.Google Scholar
  23. Mnkandla, N. 2012. History: how it all began, in Faith Connection Newsletter, undated, 11–13.Google Scholar
  24. Nel, M. 2015. Aspects of Pentecostal theology: Recent developments in Africa. Zurich: Lit Verlag GmbH & Co. KG Wien.Google Scholar
  25. Smith, C.G. 2007. Informal Pentecostal: The emergence and growth of Pentecostal churches within Kibera informal settlement, Nairobi. Missionalia: Southern African Journal of Missiology 35 (3): 67–82.Google Scholar
  26. The Herald, Zimbabwe Newspaper, 5 June 2010.Google Scholar
  27. The News Day, Zimbabwe Daily Newspaper, 21 January 2013.Google Scholar
  28. Togarasei, L. 2005. Modern Pentecostalism as an urban phenomenon: The case of the family of God Church in Zimbabwe. Exchange: Journal of Missiological and Ecumenical Research 35 (4): 349–375.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. ———. 2006. Cursed be the past!: Tradition and modernity among modern Pentecostals. BOLESWA: Journal of Theology, Religion and Philosophy 1 (2): 114–132.Google Scholar
  30. ———. 2007. Broadcasting the word: Modern Pentecostal churches’ use of media technologies. Journal of Theology for Southern Africa 129: 70–81.Google Scholar
  31. ———. 2010. Churches for the rich? Pentecostalism and elitism. In Faith in the City: The role and place of religion in Harare, ed. L. Togarasei and E. Chitando, 19–40. Uppsala: Swedish Science Press.Google Scholar
  32. ———. 2016. Historicizing Pentecostal christianity in Zimbabwe. Studia Historiae Ecclesiasticae 42 (1): 1–12.Google Scholar
  33. van Dijk, R. 1992. Young born-again preachers in post-independence Malawi: The significance of an extraneous identity. In New dimensions in African Christianity, ed. P. Gifford, 66–96. Ibadan: Sefer.Google Scholar
  34. Verstraelen, F.J. 1998. Zimbabwean realities and Christian responses. Gweru: Mambo Press.Google Scholar
  35. Weller, J., and J. Linden. 1984. Mainstream Christianity to 1980 in Malawi, Zambia and Zimbabwe. Gweru: Mambo Press.Google Scholar
  36., accessed 29 June 2012.
  37., accessed 7 Aug 2012.
  38., accessed 8 Aug 2012.
  39. Zvobgo, C.J.M. 1996. A history of Christian missions in Zimbabwe. Gweru: Mambo Press.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Lovemore Togarasei
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of TRSUniversity of BotswanaGaboroneBotswana

Personalised recommendations