Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma

  • Ülkem Yararbaş
  • Zehra Özcan


Medullary thyroid carcinoma is a part of “multiple endocrine neoplasia” syndromes in 25% of the cases. Surgery is the primary curative treatment modality in the management of medullary thyroid carcinoma. Detection of the presence and the extent of the metastatic disease is important for the appropriate therapy planning. The contribution of two nuclear medicine procedures 18F-FDG PET/CT’ and 68Ga-DOTATATE PET/CT to the management of medullary thyroid carcinoma is presented in this section.


  1. 1.
    Geller G, Laskin J, Cheung WY, Ho C. A retrospective review of the multidisciplinary management of medullary thyroid cancer: eligibility for systemic therapy. Thyroid Res. 2017;10:6. Scholar
  2. 2.
    Fagin JA, Wells SA Jr. Biologic and clinical perspectives on thyroid cancer. N Engl J Med. 2016;375:1054–67. Scholar
  3. 3.
    Accardo G, Conzo G, Esposito D, Gambardella C, Mazzella M, Castaldo F, et al. Genetics of medullary thyroid cancer: an overview. Int J Surg. 2017;41(Suppl 1):S2–6. Scholar
  4. 4.
    Carlson KM, Dou S, Chi D, Scavarda N, Toshima K, Jackson CE, et al. Single missense mutation in the tyrosine kinase catalytic domain of the RET protooncogene is associated with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2B. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1994;91:1579–83.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Wells SA Jr, Asa SL, Dralle H, Elisei R, Evans DB, Gagel RF, et al. Revised American Thyroid Association guidelines for the management of medullary thyroid carcinoma. Thyroid. 2015;25:567–610. Scholar
  6. 6.
    Qualia CM, Brown MR, Ryan CK, Rossi TM. Oral mucosal neuromas leading to the diagnosis of multiple endocrine Neoplasia type 2B in a child with intestinal pseudo-obstruction. Gastroenterol Hepatol (N Y). 2007;3:208–11.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Cohen MS, Phay JE, Albinson C, DeBenedetti MK, Skinner MA, Lairmore TC, et al. Gastrointestinal manifestations of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2. Ann Surg. 2002;235:648–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Naswa N, Sharma P, Suman Kc S, Lata S, Kumar R, Malhotra A, et al. Prospective evaluation of 68Ga-DOTA-NOC PET-CT in patients with recurrent medullary thyroid carcinoma: comparison with 18F-FDG PET-CT. Nucl Med Commun. 2012;33:766–74. Scholar
  9. 9.
    American Thyroid Association Guidelines Task Force, Kloos RT, Eng C, Evans DB, Francis GL, Gagel RF, et al. Medullary thyroid cancer: management guidelines of the American Thyroid Association. Thyroid. 2009;19:565–612. Scholar
  10. 10.
    Cheng X, Bao L, Xu Z, Li D, Wang J, Li Y. 18F-FDG-PET and 18F-FDG-PET/CT in the detection of recurrent or metastatic medullary thyroid carcinoma: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Med Imaging Radiat Oncol. 2012;56:136–42. Scholar
  11. 11.
    Patel YC. Somatostatin and its receptor family. Front Neuroendocrinol. 1999;20:157–98.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Papotti M, Kumar U, Volante M, Pecchioni C, Patel YC. Immunohistochemical detec- tion of somatostation receptor types 1-5 in medullary carcinoma of the thyroid. Clin Endocrinol. 2001;54:641–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Kwekkeboom DJ, Bakker WH, Kam BL, Teunissen JJ, Kooij PP, de Herder WW, et al. Treatment of patients with gastro-entero-pancreatic (GEP) tumors with the novel radiolabelled somatostatin analog [177Lu-DOTA(0), Tyr3]octreotate. Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging. 2003;30:417–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Conry BG, Papathanasiou ND, Prakash V, Kayani I, Caplin M, Mahmood S, et al. Comparison of (68)Ga-DOTATATE and (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose PET/CT in the detection of recurrent medullary thyroid carcinoma. Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging. 2010;37:49–57. Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ülkem Yararbaş
    • 1
  • Zehra Özcan
    • 1
  1. 1.Ege University School of Medicine, Department of Nuclear MedicineIzmirTurkey

Personalised recommendations