A Case of Papillary Carcinoma of the Thyroid with Minimal Extrathyroidal Extension

  • Banu Bilezikçi
  • Seyfettin Ilgan


Authors present a case with papillary thyroid carcinoma showing minimal extrathyroidal extension (ETE). The ETE, which is defined as tumor extension beyond the thyroid gland in surrounding tissues, is one of the major determinants of accurate staging. Though it is considered as a prognostic parameter in all guidelines, the evaluation and interpretation of microscopic ETE remain problematic due to the thyroid gland’s anatomical features. By TNM classification (seventh edition), differentiated thyroid carcinoma with ETE is designated by T3 (minimal invasion, invasion into the sternothyroid muscle or perithyroid tissues), T4a (extended invasion), or T4b (more extensive unresectable invasion) according to the degree of tumor involvement. Though outcomes from gross ETE are worse than those from microscopic ETE, both are recognized as risk factors on prognosis and recurrence rate.


Thyroid cancer Extrathyroidal extension Prognosis Recurrence 


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Banu Bilezikçi
    • 1
  • Seyfettin Ilgan
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of PathologyGüven HospitalAnkaraTurkey
  2. 2.Department of Nuclear MedicineGüven HospitalAnkaraTurkey

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