Advertisement

Market Access Challenges for Costa Rica in the Process of Accession to the Pacific Alliance

  • Susana Wong ChanEmail author
  • Carolina Palma
Chapter
Part of the United Nations University Series on Regionalism book series (UNSR, volume 16)

Abstract

This chapter stresses the importance to Costa Rica’s economy of its accession to the Pacific Alliance (PA) and analyses market access negotiation challenges. One of the requirements for accession to the PA is for new members to have existing free trade agreements in place with the PA members. We compare the agreements Costa Rica already has with each of the PA countries in order to identify the sensitive products that may present the greatest challenges in the accession process. One of the difficulties with these sensitive products is to determine how the four separate agreements that Costa Rica has negotiated with each Member of the PA can be converted into a single agreement in terms of the tariff schedule and rules of origin. The chapter concludes that with respect to rules of origin, all preferential trade agreements (PTAs) signed by Costa Rica with PA member states – except for the Free Trade Agreement (FTA) with Chile – have diagonal cumulation of origin and therefore the benefits of market cumulation outweigh the challenges posed by sensitive products. In terms of the tariff schedule, sensitive products are identified in current PTAs. However, if Costa Rica becomes a full member of this economic bloc, the country will benefit from increased market access due to the regional cumulation, as well as from many other commitments beyond market access.

Keywords

Pacific Alliance Costa Rica Market Access 

References

Books and Articles

  1. Carlsnaes, W., Risse, T., & Simmons, B. A. (2011). Foreign policy. In Handbook of international relations. London: Sage.Google Scholar
  2. Cottier, T., & Maya, H. (2003). The prospects of 21st century constitutionalism. In B. von Armin & R. Wolfrum (Eds.), Max Planck yearbook of united nations law (Vol. 7, pp. 261–328). Leiden: Koninklijke Brill N.V.Google Scholar
  3. Felbermayr, G., et al. (2015). Dimensiones y Efectos Económicos de la Alianza del Pacífico. Instituto Ifo de Investigación Económica Konrad Adenauer Stiftung. Santiago: RiL editores.Google Scholar
  4. Friedman, T. L. (1999). The Lexus and the olive tree. New York: Anchor Books.Google Scholar
  5. Haas, E. B. (1964). Beyond the Nation-State. Stanford: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
  6. Haas, E. B. (1976). Turbulent fields and the theory of regional integration. International Organization, 30(2), 173–212.  https://doi.org/10.1017/S0020818300018245.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Hertel, T. W., Anderson, K., Francois, J. F., & Martin, W. (2000). Agriculture and non-agricultural liberalization in the millenium round (GTAP Working Paper, Paper 8). Purdue University.Google Scholar
  8. Keohane, R. O., & Nye Joseph Jr., S. (1971). Transnational relations and world politics. In The journal of international organization (Vol. 88, No. 1 pp. 329–349). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.  https://doi.org/10.2307/2148689
  9. Nye, J. S., Jr. (1971). Peace in parts: Integration and conflict in regional organization. Boston: Little Brown.Google Scholar
  10. Nye, J. S., Jr., & Donahue, J. D. (Eds.). (2000). Governance in a globalizing world. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press.Google Scholar
  11. Risse, T. (2007). Transnational actors and world politics. In Handbook of International Relations (pp. 251–286). London: SAGE Publications Ltd.  https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-540-70818-6_19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Simmons, B. A., Carlsnae, W., & Risse, T. (2012). Handbook of International Relations. London: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
  13. Verdier, T. (1994). Models of political economy of growth: A short survey. European Economic Review, 38(3–4), 757–563.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Zürn, M. (2011). From interdependence to globalization. In Handbook of international relations. London: Sage.  https://doi.org/10.4135/9781446247587.n16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

News

  1. Avendaño, M. (2016). Costa Rica será ‘transparente’ sobre déficit fiscal en Cumbre Alianza del Pacífico. La Nación, 29 June. http://www.nacion.com/economia/empresarial/Costa-Rica-Cumbre-Alianza-Pacifico_0_1569643130.html. Accessed Aug 1 2016.
  2. Cambronero, N. (2017). Luis Guillermo Solís concluye, tras gira a EE. UU., que el TLC no se verá afectado. La Nación, 20 March. http://www.nacion.com/nacional/politica/Guillermo-Solis-EE-UU-Cafta_0_1622637798.html. Accessed 4 Apr 2017.
  3. Diamond, J., & Bash, D. (2017). Trump signs order withdrawing from TPP, reinstate ‘Mexico City policy’ on abortion, CNN, 24 January. http://edition.cnn.com/2017/01/23/politics/trans-pacific-partnership-trade-deal-withdrawal-trumps-first-executive-action-monday-sources-say/. Accessed 4 Apr 2016.

Institutional

  1. Alianza del pacífico. (2013a). Acuerdo Marco de la Alianza del Pacífico. https://alianzapacifico.net/?wpdmdl=4464f. Accessed 8 Oct 2015.
  2. Alianza del Pacífico. (2013b). Primer protocolo modificatorio del protocol adicional al Acuerdo Marco de la Alianza del Pacífico. https://alianzapacifico.net/?wpdmdl=4580. Accessed 1 Aug 2016.
  3. Alianza del Pacífico. (2016). Representantes de Aduanas de los países de la AP firmaron un Plan de Acción para avanzar hacia un Acuerdo de Reconocimiento Mutuo. https://alianzapacifico.net/representantes-de-aduanas-de-los-paises-de-la-alianza-del-pacifico-firmaron-un-plan-de-accion-para-avanzar-hacia-un-acuerdo-de-reconocimiento-mutuo/. Accessed 1 Aug 2016.
  4. COMEX. (1999). Tratado de Libre Comercio entre la República de Costa Rica y la República de Chile, Documento explicativo. http://www.comex.go.cr/tratados/vigentes/chile/doc_explicativo_chile.pdf. Accessed 19 July 2015.
  5. COMEX. (2000). Tratado de Libre Comercio entre Costa Rica, y México: Una evaluación a cinco años de su vigencia. http://www.sice.oas.org/TPD/CRI_MEX/Studies/Ev5TLC_s.pdf. Accessed 19 July 2015.
  6. COMEX. (2002). Tratado de Libre Comercio entre Centroamérica y Chile y del Protocolo Bilateral Adjunto Celebrado entre las Repúblicas de Costa Rica y de Chile: Capítulo 4 sobre Reglas de Origen. http://www.comex.go.cr/tratados/vigentes/chile/texto_tratado/capitulo%204/00_Capitulo%20IV.pdf. Accessed 19 July 2015.
  7. COMEX. (2011). Tratado de Libre Comercio entre Costa Rica y Peru, Documento explicativo. http://www.comex.go.cr/tratados/vigentes/peru/documento_explicativo_peru.pdf. Accessed 19 July 2015.
  8. COMEX. (2012). Tratado de Libre Comercio entre Centroamérica y México, Documento explicativo. http://www.comex.go.cr/tratados/proceso_legislativo/mexico/Documento%20explicativo%20Mexico.pdf. Accessed 19 July 2015.
  9. COMEX. (2013a). Tratado de Libre Comercio entre los Estados Unidos Mexicanos y las Repúblicas de Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras y Nicaragua: Capítulo IV sobre Reglas de Origen. http://www.comex.go.cr/tratados/proceso_legislativo/mexico/texto_tratado/capitulo4/00_Capitulo4%20Reglas%20de%20Origen.pdf. Accessed 19 July 2015.
  10. COMEX. (2013b). Tratado de Libre Comercio entre Costa Rica y Colombia, Documento explicativo. http://www.comex.go.cr/tratados/proceso_negociacion/colombia/documento%20explicativo/Documento%20Explicativo.pdf. Accessed 19 July 2015.
  11. COMEX. (2014a). Alianza del Pacífico consulta sectorial sobre acceso a mercado de bienes y servicios. http://www.comex.go.cr/tratados/proceso_negociacion/alianza%20del%20pacifico/Consulta%20Sectorial%20AP.pdf. Accessed 16 Oct 2015.
  12. COMEX. (2016). Exportaciones de bienes cifras globales por destino 2004–2015. http://www.comex.go.cr/estadisticas/exportaciones.aspx. Accessed 19 Nov 2015.
  13. COMEX. (undated-b). Tratado de Libre Comercio entre los Estados Unidos Mexicanos y las Repúblicas de Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras y Nicaragua. http://www.comex.go.cr/tratados/vigentes/mexico.aspx. Accessed 19 Nov 2015.
  14. COMEX. (undated-c). Tratado de Libre Comercio entre Centroamérica y Chile y del Protocolo Bilateral Adjunto Celebrado entre las Repúblicas de Costa Rica y de Chile. http://www.comex.go.cr/tratados/vigentes/chile.aspx. Accessed 28 Oct 2017.
  15. COMEX. (undated-d). Tratado de Libre Comercio entre el Gobierno de la República de Costa Rica y el Gobierno de la República de Perú. http://www.comex.go.cr/tratados/vigentes/peru.aspx. Accessed 28 Oct 2017.
  16. COMEX. (undated-e). Tratado de Libre Comercio entre el Gobierno de la República de Costa Rica y el Gobierno de la República de Colombia’, http://www.comex.go.cr/tratados/proceso_negociacion/Colombia.aspx. Accessed 3 Aug 2016.
  17. Cudmore, E., & Whalley, J. (2005). Barriers to prosperity – Developing countries and the need for trade liberalisation. http://www.nber.org/chapters/c10140.pdf. Accessed 19 July 2016.
  18. Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (ECLAC). (2015a). Informe del Estado de las Exportaciones en América Latina. Google Scholar
  19. Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (ECLAC). (2015b). Panorama de la Inserción Internacional de América Latina y el Caribe 2015. La Crisis del comercio regional: diagnóstico y perspectivas. Santiago, Chile. http://repositorio.cepal.org/bitstream/handle/11362/39010/S1501143_es.pdf. Accessed 15 Oct 2015.
  20. Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (ECLAC). (2015c). El Comercio Regional ante una encrucijada: diversificación e integración en un contexto global de bajo crecimiento. Press Release. http://www.cepal.org/es/comunicados/comercio-regional-encrucijada-diversificacion-integracion-un-contexto-global-crecimiento. Accessed 15 Nov 2015.
  21. Foreign Trade Information System. (undated). Marco jurídico de la integración centroamericana. http://www.sice.oas.org/sica/instmt_s.asp. Accessed 19 Nov 2015.
  22. Gasiorek, M., Augier, P., & Lai-Tong, C. (2007). Multilateralising regionalism: Relaxing rules of origin or can those PECS be flexed? World Trade Organization. https://www.wto.org/english/tratop_e/region_e/con_sep07_e/gasiorek_augier_lai_tong_e.pdf. Accessed 4 Aug 2016.
  23. Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). (2013). Investment policy reviews: Costa Rica http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/finance-and-investment/oecd-investment-policy-reviews-costa-rica-2013_9789264203952-en#page11. Accessed 3 June 2014.
  24. U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). (2016). Regulatory harmonization and convergence. http://www.fda.gov/BiologicsBloodVaccines/InternationalActivities/ucm271079.htm. Accessed 22 July 2016.
  25. World Customs Organization. (2010). The authorized economic operator and the small and medium enterprise, FAQ.. http://www.wcoomd.org/en/topics/facilitation/instrument-and-tools/tools/~/media/93162547322F462A97F8767D0987A901.ashx. Accessed 1 Aug 2016.

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Customs Administration and Foreign Trade Bachelors ProgramUniversity of Costa RicaSan JoseCosta Rica
  2. 2.Cross-border Research AssociationLausanneSwitzerland
  3. 3.Global Trade and CustomsTrade and Customs Leader for Central America, Panama and the Dominican Republic with EY LAWSan JoseCosta Rica

Personalised recommendations