Advertisement

Emergency Management in Maritime Mass Rescue Operations: The Case of the High Arctic

  • Natalia Andreassen
  • Odd Jarl Borch
  • Svetlana Kuznetsova
  • Sergey Markov
Chapter
Part of the WMU Studies in Maritime Affairs book series (WMUSTUD, volume 7)

Abstract

Maritime activity in turbulent environments represents a challenge to the emergency preparedness system. In particular, the Arctic may be turbulent as to weather, especially in winter time. The consequences of accidents may be severe due to long distances, cold climate and limited local resources. In this chapter we look into large scale emergencies causing mass rescue from ships. We elaborate on the coordination of the broad range of search and rescue actors included in such an incident both in the air, at sea and ashore with several institutions and management levels included. We also describe the incorporation of host nation support from neighboring countries. We build upon the experiences from the accident of the cruise ship “Maxim Gorkiy” in the ice South-West of Svalbard. We illustrate the organizational structure of mass rescue operations and the coordinative roles at different levels. Finally, we discuss the implications for emergency management in extreme environments like the Arctic region.

Keywords

Arctic Emergency management Mass rescue Turbulent environments Search and rescue Cross-border cooperation Incident command systems 

Notes

Acknowledgement

This chapter is written under the MARPART project “Maritime International Partnership in the High North” funded by the Norwegian Ministry of Foreign Affairs, the Nordland County Administration and partner universities. We are also grateful for the kind support of the staff at the Joint Rescue Coordination Center—Northern Norway in Bodø.

References

  1. Adizes, I. (1979). How to solve the mismanagement crisis: Diagnosis and treatment of management problems. The Adizes Institute Publishing.Google Scholar
  2. Arctic SAR Agreement. (2011). Agreement on Cooperation on Aeronautical and Maritime Search and Rescue in the Arctic, Nuuk, Greenland, 12 May 2011. http://www.arctic-council.org/index.php/en/environment-and-people/oceans/search-and-rescue/157-sar-agreement
  3. Barents 2020. (2009). Assessment of international standards for safe exploration, production and transportation of oil and gas in the Barents Sea, Final Report, Russian-Norwegian Cooperation Project, Panel RN04 Escape, Evacuation and Rescue of People.Google Scholar
  4. Bharosa, N., Lee, J. K., & Janssen, M. (2010). Challenges and obstacles in sharing and coordinating information during multi-agency disaster response: Propositions from field exercises. Information Systems Frontiers, 12, 49–65.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bigley, G. A., & Roberts, K. H. (2001). The incident command system: High reliability organizing for complex and volatile environments. Academy of Management Journal, 44(6), 1281–1299.Google Scholar
  6. Borch, O. J. (2015). Observation from Exercise Barents. Internal notes.Google Scholar
  7. Borch, O. J., & Andreassen, N. (2015). Joint-task force management in cross-border emergency response. Managerial roles and structuring mechanisms in high complexity-high volatility environments. In A. Weintrit & T. Neumann (Eds.), Information, communication and environment: Marine navigation and safety of sea transportation. Boca Raton: CRC Press.Google Scholar
  8. Borch, O. J., Andreassen, N., Marchenko, N., Ingimundarson, V., Gunnarsdóttir, H., Iudin, I., et al. (2016). Maritime activity in the high North – Current and estimated level up to 2025 (MARPART project report 1). Nord University.Google Scholar
  9. Borch, O. J., & Batalden, B. (2014). Business-process management in high-turbulence environments: The case of the offshore service vessel industry. Maritime Policy & Management, 42(5).Google Scholar
  10. Buck, D. A., Trainor, J. E., & Aguirre, B. E. (2006). A critical evaluation of the incident command system and NIMS. Journal of Homeland Security and Emergency Management, 3(3), Article 1. http://www.bepress.com/jhsem/vol3/iss3/1
  11. Comfort, L. (2007). Crisis management in hindsight: Cognition, communication, coordination, and control. Public Administration Review, Special Issue, 189–197.Google Scholar
  12. Comfort, L. K., & Kapucu, N. (2006). Inter-organizational coordination in extreme events: The World Trade Center attacks, September 11, 2001. Natural Hazards, 39, 309–327.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Cosgrave, J. (1996). Decision making in emergencies. Disaster Prevention and Management: An International Journal, 5(4), 28–35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Cunha, M. P., Cunha, J. V., & Kamoche, K. (1999). Organizational improvisation: what, when, how and why. International Journal of Management Reviews, 1(3), 299–341.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Drucker, P. (2007). The practice of management. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  16. DSB Norwegian Directorate for Civil Protection. (2014). Veileder for vertsnasjonstøtte I Norge (Host Nation Support). General Guideline. http://www.dsb.no/Global/Publikasjoner/2014/Tema/veileder_vertsnasjonstotte.pdf
  17. Ekvall, G., & Arvonen, J. (1994). Leadership profiles, situation and effectiveness. Creativity and Innovation Management, 3, 139–161.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. EMERCOM. (1995). The manual of population evacuation in emergency situations.Google Scholar
  19. Forsvaret. (2016). Kystvakta [Online]. Retrieved January 31, 2016, from https://forsvaret.no/kystvakten
  20. Gaillard, J. C., & Mercer, J. (2012). From knowledge to action: Bridging gaps in disaster risk reduction. Progress in Human Geography. http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/full/10.1177/0309132512446717
  21. Hovden, S. T. (2012). Redningsdåden – om Maxim Gorkiy-havariet utenfor Svalbard I 1989. Sandnes: Commentum Forlag.Google Scholar
  22. Norwegian Coast Guard website http://forsvaret.no/kystvakten
  23. IFSMA. (2015). Accident of the edge of catastrophe. Captains’ blogs, published 15 July 2015. http://amko.org.ua/index.php/blogi/entry/avariya-na-grani-katastrofy
  24. Inquirer Wire Services. (1989). Hundreds rescued from Arctic after Ship Rams Iceberg, philly.com, June 21, 1989. http://articles.philly.com/1989-06-21/news/26108856_1_sigurd-kleiven-senja-lifeboats
  25. International Maritime Organization (IMO). (2003). Guidance for mass rescue operations. http://imo.udhb.gov.tr/dosyam/EKLER/201381214504COMSAR1Circ31GuidanceForMassRescueOperations.pdf
  26. International Maritime Organization (IMO). (2016). International aeronautical and maritime search and rescue IAMSAR manual. London: International Maritime Organization.Google Scholar
  27. Jardine-Smith, D. (2014). Mass rescue. Seaways, January 2014.Google Scholar
  28. Jardine-Smith, D. (2015). The challenge: Acknowledging the problem, and mass rescue incident types. IMRF (International Maritime Rescue Federation) Guidance paper. http://www.international-maritime-rescue.org/index.php/librarymropublic/categoriesmrolibrarypublic/philosophyandfocusphoca/file/926-1-1-the-challenge-acknowledging-the-problem-and-mass-rescue-incident-types
  29. Kapucu, N. (2005). Interorganizational coordination in dynamic context: Networks in emergency response management. Connections, 26(2), 33–48.Google Scholar
  30. Kvamstad, B., Fjortoft, K. E., Bekkadal, F., Marchenko, A. V., & Ervik, J. L. (2009). A case study from an emergency operation in the Arctic Seas. TransNav, the International Journal on Marine Navigation and Safety of Sea Transportation, 3(2), 153–159.Google Scholar
  31. Lindell, M. K., Perry, R. W., & Prater, C. S. (2005). Organizing response to disasters with the incident command system/incident management system (ICS/IMS). International Workshop on Emergency Response and Rescue Oct 31 ~ Nov 1, 2005.Google Scholar
  32. Lohr, S. (1989). All Safe in Soviet Ship Drama. The New York Times, June 21, 1989. http://www.nytimes.com/1989/06/21/world/all-safe-in-soviet-ship-drama.html
  33. Lutz, L. D., & Lindell, M. K. (2008). Incident command system as a response model within emergency operation centers during hurricane Rita. Journal of Contingencies and Crisis Management, 16(3), 122–134.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Marchenko, N., Borch, O. J., Markov, S. V., & Andreassen, N. (2016). Maritime safety in the high north - Risk and preparedness. In ISOPE - International Offshore and Polar Engineering Conference. Proceedings 2016; Volume 2016-January (pp. 1233–1240).Google Scholar
  35. Marchenko, N. A. (2015). Ship traffic in the Svalbard area and safety issues. In Proceedings of the 23rd International Conference on Port and Ocean Engineering under Arctic Conditions.Google Scholar
  36. Marchenko, N. A., Borch, O. J., Markov, S. V., & Andreassen, N. (2015). Maritime activity in the High North – The range of unwanted incidents and risk patterns, conference paper. In Proceedings of the 23rd International Conference on Port and Ocean Engineering under Arctic Conditions.Google Scholar
  37. Mintzberg, H. (1973). The nature of managerial work. New York: Harper Row.Google Scholar
  38. Mintzberg, H. (2003). The manager’s job: folklore and fact. In J. Reynolds, J. Henderson, J. Seden, J. Charlesworth, & A. Bullman (Eds.), The managing care reader. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  39. Mintzberg, H. (2009). Managing. Williston, VT: Berrett-Koehler Publishers.Google Scholar
  40. Mitroff, I. I. (2004). Crisis leadership. Planning for the unthinkable. Hoboken: John Wiley & Sons Inc..Google Scholar
  41. Nieswandt, M. (2015). Fast cultural change. The role and influence of middle management. Springer.Google Scholar
  42. Owen, C., Bearman, C., Brooks, B., Chapman, J., Paton, D., & Hossain, L. (2013). Developing a research framework for complex multi-team coordination in emergency management. International Journal of Emergency Management, 9(1), 1–17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Pan, S. L., Pan, G., & Leidner, D. (2012). Crisis response information networks. Journal of the Association for Information Systems, 13(1), 31–56.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Paton, D., & Flin, R. (1999). Disaster stress: An emergency management perspective. Disaster Management: An International Journal, 8(4), 261–267.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Politidirektoratet. (2011). PBS 1. Politiets beredskapssystem del 1. Retningslinjer for politiets beredskap.Google Scholar
  46. Quarantelli, E. L. (1986). Research findings on organizational behavior in disasters and their applicability in developing countries (Preliminary paper # 107). Newark, DE: Disaster Research Center, University of Delaware.Google Scholar
  47. RCC Northern Norway. (2015). Evaluation of Exercise Barents 2015. Internal report (in Norwegian).Google Scholar
  48. Rottem, S. V. (2014). The Arctic Council and the search and rescue agreement: The case of Norway. Polar Record, 50(254), 284–292.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. SAR Convention. (1979). International Convention on Maritime Search and Rescue, Hamburg, 27 April 1979. http://www.imo.org/en/About/Conventions/ListOfConventions/Pages/International-Convention-on-Maritime-Search-and-Rescue-(SAR).aspx
  50. Stacey, R. D. (2001). Complex responsive processes in organisations: Learning and knowledge creation. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  51. Takei, Y. (2013). Agreement on cooperation on aeronautical and maritime search and rescue in the Arctic: An assessment. Aegean Review of the Law of the Sea and Maritime Law, 2(1), 81–109.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Turoff, M., White, C., & Plotnick, L. (2011). Dynamic emergency response management for large scale decision making in extreme hazardous events. In F. Burstein, P. Brezillon, & A. Zaslavsky (Eds.), Supporting real time decision-making (Vol. 13). Boston: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. The Maritime Rescue Service of the Russian Federation website www.gmssr.ru
  54. Joint Rescue Coordination Center Norway website www.hovedredningssentralen.no
  55. Yan, S.-Y., Jiang, H.-Y., & Wan, C.-P. (2014). Analysis of the trend of globalization of regional search and rescue cooperation. In W.-P. Sung, J. C. M. Kao, & R. Chen (Eds.), Environment, energy and sustainable development. Abingdon: Taylor & Francis Group.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Natalia Andreassen
    • 1
  • Odd Jarl Borch
    • 1
  • Svetlana Kuznetsova
    • 2
  • Sergey Markov
    • 2
  1. 1.Nord University Business SchoolNord UniversityBodøNorway
  2. 2.Northern (Arctic) Federal UniversityArkhangelskRussia

Personalised recommendations