• Sean Esmende
  • Hardeep Singh


Osteoarthritis is a degenerative condition, which affects a significant amount of patients. It is important to understand the normal biology of articular cartilage and how this is altered to lead to the development of osteoarthritis. Understanding the pathophysiology of osteoarthritis is important when recommending a treatment plan for a patient. This chapter highlights some of the important points one should be aware of while studying the biology of normal articular cartilage and the pathophysiology associated with osteoarthritis.


Osteoarthritis Articular cartilage Lubrication Aging Keratin sulfate Chondroitin sulfate 

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sean Esmende
    • 1
  • Hardeep Singh
    • 2
  1. 1.Orthopedic Associates of Hartford, Division of Spine SurgeryThe Bone and Joint Institute, Hartford HospitalHartfordUSA
  2. 2.Department of Orthopaedic SurgeryNew England Musculoskeletal Institute, University of Connecticut School of MedicineFarmingtonUSA

Personalised recommendations