Axial Rotations

  • Jose M. Ramirez


Children are often seen out of concern for malrotation of the lower extremities. Understanding the various hip, tibia, and foot-related causes of lower extremity malrotation can identify children who will benefit from surgical correction.


Intoeing Rotational profile Tibial torsion Foot progression angle 

What is the most common cause of intoeing in toddlers?

Internal tibial torsion

How does one measure thigh foot angle ?

With the patient prone, angle formed along middle of the foot and the ipsilateral thigh

What are two additional causes of intoeing in children?

Metatarsus adductus, femoral anteversion

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jose M. Ramirez
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Orthopaedic SurgeryAlpert Medical School of Brown UniversityProvidenceUSA

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