Spinal Bifida

  • Daniel Brian Carlin Reid


Spina bifida (myelodysplasia) is caused by incomplete closure of the fetal spinal cord and/or column during development. Severity can range greatly from isolated defect in the vertebral arch (spina bifida occulta) to complete neural element exposure (rachischisis). The characteristic deficits and associated treatment modalities vary largely based on the lowest functional level in each patient and spina bifida can result in orthopedic pathology throughout the body including the hip, ankle, foot, spine, and pelvis.


Spina bifida Myelodysplasia Folate Alpha-fetoprotein Scoliosis Tethered cord 

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Daniel Brian Carlin Reid
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of OrthopaedicsRhode Island Hospital, Brown UniversityProvidenceUSA

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