Digital India pp 147-157 | Cite as

Perceived Information Risk While Providing Sensitive Information for Consuming Digital Services

  • Syed Ziaul Mustafa
  • Arpan Kumar Kar
Part of the Advances in Theory and Practice of Emerging Markets book series (ATPEM)


Since the increase on use of the digital services, there has been growth of risk surrounding information. So the measure of the information risk while using digital services has been a concern for the information security managers. The purpose of the study is to develop a conceptual model which can be used to measure the information risk while using digital services. The sharing of information during the purchase of the digital services is very certain. The conceptual model develops the antecedents of the information risk. The antecedents are network environment characteristics, network trust, general information security awareness, perceived information privacy concern and information type. The model also includes the contrast which shows the willingness to buy the digital services. It includes perceived risk, trust in service provider, perceived size and reputation of the digital service provider.


Information risk Perceived risk Digital service 


  1. Alalwan AA, Dwivedi YK, Rana NP, Williams MD (2016) Consumer adoption of mobile banking in Jordan examining the role of usefulness, ease of use, perceived risk and self-efficacy. J Enterp Inf Manag 29(1):118–139CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Alter S, Sherer SA (2004) A general, but readily adaptable model of information system risk. Commun Assoc Inf Syst 14:1–28Google Scholar
  3. Baskerville RL, Stage J (1996) Controlling prototype development through risk analysis. MIS Q 20:481–504CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Batty M, Axhausen KW, Giannotti F, Pozdnoukhov A, Bazzani A, Wachowicz M, Ouzounis G, Portugali Y (2012) Smart cities of the future. Eur Phys J Spec Top 214(1):481–518CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Benaroch M, Lichtenstein Y, Robinson K (2006) Real options in information technology risk management: an empirical validation of risk-option relationships. MIS Q 30(4):827–864CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bryce J, Fraser J (2014) The role of disclosure of personal information in the evaluation of risk and trust in young peoples’ online interactions. Comput Hum Behav 30:299–306CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Buchanan S, McMenemy D (2012) Digital service analysis and design: the role of process modelling. Int J Inf Manag 32(3):251–256CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bulgurcu B, Cavusoglu H, Benbasat I (2010) Information security policy compliance: an empirical study of rationality-based beliefs and information security awareness. MIS Q 34(3):523–548CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Chen Y-S, Huang SYJ (2016) The effect of task-technology fit on purchase intention: the moderating role of perceived risks. J Risk Res 9877:1–21Google Scholar
  10. Chen P, Kataria G, Krishnan R (2011) Correlated failures, diversification, and information security risk management. MIS Q 35(2):397–422CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Cocosila M, Archer N, Yuan Y (2009) Early investigation of new information technology acceptance: a perceived risk - motivation model. Commun Assoc Inf Syst 25(1):339–358Google Scholar
  12. Cohen DA (2008) Does information risk really matter? An analysis of the determinants and economic consequences of financial reporting quality. Asia-Pac J Account Econ 15(2):69–90Google Scholar
  13. Couch LL, Jones WH (1997) Measuring levels of trust. J Res Pers 31:319–336CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Culnan MJ, Williams CC (2009) How ethics can enhance organizational privacy: lessons from the ChoicePoint and TJX data breaches. MIS Q 33(4):673–687CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. De Kerviler G, Demoulin NTM, Zidda P (2016) Adoption of in-store mobile payment: are perceived risk and convenience the only drivers? J Retail Consum Serv 31:334–344CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. De Ruyter K, Wetzels M, Kleijnen M (2001) Customer adoption of e-service: an experimental study. Int J Serv Ind Manag 12(2):184–207CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Dinev T, Hart P (2006) An extended privacy Calculus transactions model for E-commerce transactions. Inf Syst Res 17(1):61–80CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Dong T-P, Cheng N-C, Wu Y-CJ (2014) A study of the social networking website service in digital content industries: the Facebook case in Taiwan. Comput Hum Behav 30:708–714CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Donner J, Tellez CA (2008) Mobile banking and economic development: linking adoption, impact, and use. Asian J Commun 18(4):318–332CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Dowling GR, Staelin R (1994) A model of perceived risk and intended risk-handling activity. J Consum Res 21(1):119–134CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Drew M (2007) Information risk management and compliance—expect the unexpected. BT Technol J 25(1):19–29CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Easley D, Hvidkjaer S, O’Hara M (2002) Is information risk a determinant of asset Returns ? J Financ 57(5):2185–2221CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Featherman MS, Pavlou PA (2003) Predicting e-services adoption: a perceived risk facets perspective. Int J Hum Comput Stud 59(4):451–474CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Featherman MS, Miyazaki AD, Sprott DE (2010) Reducing online privacy risk to facilitate e-service adoption: the influence of perceived ease of use and corporate credibility. J Serv Mark 24(3):219–229CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Froehle CM, Roth AV (2004) New measurement scales for evaluating perceptions of the technology-mediated customer service experience. J Oper Manag 22(1):1–21CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Fung W, Hsieh DA, Naik NY, Ramadorai T (2008) Hedge funds: performance, risk, and capital formation. J Financ 63(4):1777–1803CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Gefen D, Straub DW, Boudreau M-C (2000) Structural equation modeling and Regression : guidelines for research practice. Commun Assoc Inf Syst 4:1–77Google Scholar
  28. Gefen D, Benbasat I, Pavlou PA (2008) A research agenda for trust in online environments. J Manag Inf Syst 24(4):275–286CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Glover S, Benbasat I (2011) A comprehensive model of perceived risk of E-commerce transactions. Int J Electron Commer 15(2):47–78CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Guriting P, Ndubisi NO (2006) Borneo online banking: evaluating customer perceptions and behavioural intention. Manag Res News 29(1/2):6–15CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Hajli MN, Sims J, Featherman M, Love PED (2015) Credibility of information in online communities. J Strateg Mark 4488:1–16Google Scholar
  32. Hernández-Ramos JL, Moreno MV, Bernabé JB, Carrillo DG, Skarmeta AF (2015) SAFIR: secure access framework for IoT-enabled services on smart buildings. J Comput Syst Sci 81(8):1452–1463CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Higgs G, Langford M, Fry R (2013) Investigating variations in the provision of digital services in public libraries using network-based GIS models. Lib Inf Sci Res 35(1):24–32CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Janssen M, Rana NP, Slade EL, Dwivedi YK (2017) Trustworthiness of digital government services: deriving a comprehensive theory through interpretive structural modelling. Publ Manag Rev 0(0):1–25Google Scholar
  35. Jarvenpaa SL, Tractinsky N, Vitale M (2000) Consumer trust in an internet store. Inf Technol Manag 1:45–71CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Kaplan S, Garrick BJ (1981) On the quantitative definition of risk. Risk Anal I(I):11–27CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Keaveney SM, Parthasarathy M (2001) Customer switching behavior in online Services : an exploratory study of the role of selected attitudinal , behavioral , and demographic factors. J Acad Mark Sci 29(4):374–390CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Lee MKO, Shi N, Cheung CMK, Lim KH, Sia CL (2011) Consumer’s decision to shop online : the moderating role of positive informational social influence. Inf Manag 48:185–191CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Lee JH, Phaal R, Lee S-H (2013) An integrated service-device-technology roadmap for smart city development. Technol Forecast Soc Chang 80(2):286–306CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Lee JJ, Warkentin M, Johnston AC (2016) A broader view of perceived risk during internet transactions. Commun Assoc Inf Syst 38:171–189Google Scholar
  41. Lim N (2003) Consumers’ perceived risk: sources versus consequences. Electron Commer Res Appl 2(3):216–228CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Locander WB, Hermann PW (1979) The effect of self-confidence and anxiety on information seeking in consumer risk reduction. J Mark Res 16(2):268–274CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Loch KD, Carr HH, Warkentin ME (1992) Threats to information Systems : Today’s reality , Yesterday’s understanding. MIS Q 16(2):173–186CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Luo X, Li H, Zhang J, Shim JP (2010) Examining multi-dimensional trust and multi-faceted risk in initial acceptance of emerging technologies : an empirical study of mobile banking services. Decis Support Syst 49(2):222–234CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Malhotra NK, Kim SS, Agarwal J (2004) Internet users ’ information privacy concerns ( IU) the construct , the scale , and a causal model. Inf Syst Res 15(4):336–355CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Mitchell V (1999) Consumer perceived risk: conceptualisations and models. Eur J Mark 33(1/2):163–195CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Mohammadi H (2015) Investigating users’ perspectives on e-learning: an integration of TAM and IS success model. Comput Hum Behav 45:359–374CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Mohd Nishat Faisal DK, Banwet RS (2007) Supply chains : an assessment and mitigation framework. J Enterp Inf Manag 20(6):677–699CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Nazimoglu Ö, Özsen Y (2010) Analysis of risk dynamics in information technology service delivery. J Enterp Inf Manag 23(3):350–364CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Pan Y, Zinkhan GM (2006) Exploring the impact of online privacy disclosures on consumer trust. J Retail 82(4):331–338CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Roy SK, Balaji MS, Kesharwani A, Sekhon H (2016) Predicting internet banking adoption in India: a perceived risk perspective. J Strateg Mark 4488:1–21Google Scholar
  52. Sharma S, Routroy S (2016) Modeling information risk in supply chain using Bayesian networks. J Enterp Inf Manag 29(2):238–254CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Sherer SA, Alter S (2004) Information systems risks and risk factors: are they mostly about information systems? Commun Assoc Inf Syst 14(1):29–64Google Scholar
  54. Singhal H, Kar AK (2015) Information security concerns in digital Services : literature review and a multi-stakeholder approach. In: International conference on advances in computing, communications and informatics, pp 901–906Google Scholar
  55. Smith H a, Mckeen JD, Staples S (2001) New developments in practice I : risk Management in Information Systems : problems and potential. Commun Assoc Inf Syst 7(13):1–29Google Scholar
  56. Sohail MS, Al-jabri IM (2013) Attitudes towards mobile banking : are there any differences between users and non-users ? Behav Inform Technol 33(4):335–344CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Steenbruggen J, Tranos E, Nijkamp P (2015) Data from mobile phone operators: a tool for smarter cities? Telecommun Policy 39:335–346CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Sweeney JC, Soutar GN (2001) Consumer perceived value: the development of a multiple item scale. J Retail 77:203–220CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Teo TSH, Liu J (2007) Consumer trust in e-commerce in the United States, Singapore and China. Omega Int J Manag Sci 35:22–38CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Teo TSH, Srivastava SC, Jiang L (2008) Trust and electronic government success: an empirical study. J Manag Inf Syst 25(3):99–131CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Thompson KM, Bloom DL (2000) Communication of risk assessment information to risk managers. J Risk Res 3(4):333–352CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Wang W-T, Li H-M (2012) Factors influencing mobile services adoption: a brand-equity perspective. Internet Res 22(2):142–179CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Williams K, Chatterjee S, Rossi M (2008) Design of emerging digital services: a taxonomy. Eur J Inf Syst 17(5):505–517CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Yadav SB, Dong T (2014) A comprehensive method to assess work system security risk. Commun Assoc Inf Syst 34(1):169–198Google Scholar
  65. Youn S (2005) Teenagers’ perceptions of online privacy and coping behaviors: a risk–benefit appraisal approach. J Broadcast Electron Media 49(1):86–110CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Zhang KZK, Benyoucef M (2016) Consumer behavior in social commerce: a literature review. Decis Support Syst 86:95CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Zhang H, Lu Y, Gupta S, Gao P (2015) Understanding group-buying websites continuance an extension of expectation confirmation model. Internet Res 25(5):767–793CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Syed Ziaul Mustafa
    • 1
  • Arpan Kumar Kar
    • 2
  1. 1.Centre of Excellence in Cyber Systems and Information Assurance (CoE-CSIA), Indian Institute of Technology DelhiNew DelhiIndia
  2. 2.Department of Management StudiesIndian Institute of Technology DelhiNew DelhiIndia

Personalised recommendations