Extremity Muscle Compartment Pressure Measurement
Early diagnosis and treatment of compartment syndrome are essential skills in the care of critically-ill patients. The main principles of diagnosis include understanding normal compartment pressures, compartment perfusion pressures and the pathophysiology of compartment syndrome. A delay in diagnosis of compartment syndrome can lead to severe, often irreversible sequelae including nerve and muscle ischemia. In this chapter, we review the pathophysiology and diagnosis of compartment syndrome utilizing pressure measurements, and relevant anatomy of the extremity compartments, including upper, lower and buttock.