Standards for Conducting Ophthalmic Examinations in Laboratory Animals

  • David A. Wilkie
  • Brian C. GilgerEmail author
  • Joshua T. Bartoe


Ocular toxicology pertains to toxicological effects on the eye of drugs administered topically, periocularly, intraocularly, or systemically. The ophthalmic examination is able to provide detailed in-life information and is used in combination with clinical observations, clinical pathology, and histopathology to assess potential toxicologic effects. The ophthalmologist must be familiar with the wide range of species used in the field of toxicology, be familiar with the anatomic variations associated with these species, be able to differentiate an inherited or a breed-related finding from a study-related effect, be competent with the required ophthalmic equipment, and be capable of examining this wide range of animals.


Laboratory animal Examination Ophthalmology Ocular toxicology Standards 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • David A. Wilkie
    • 1
  • Brian C. Gilger
    • 1
    Email author
  • Joshua T. Bartoe
    • 1
  1. 1.Department Chair, Department of Veterinary Clinical SciencesThe Ohio State UniversityColumbusUSA

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