Melanoma pp 567-576 | Cite as

Current Immunotherapy of Melanoma

  • Kimberly Loo
  • Clinton Wu
  • Adil DaudEmail author


The immune system is intimately and comprehensively engaged in controlling and ultimately allowing the escape of cancer and specifically melanoma. In order to escape control, a variety of immune checkpoint are co-opted by melanoma. We describe the history of immune therapy in melanoma up to the present and highlight some of the areas of controversy and agreement. The development of accurate biomarkers has been an emerging field and has provided the impetus for the development of combination and sequential immunotherapies. Intratumoral immunotherapy holds great promise in melanoma specifically for patients with T-cell non-infiltrated or immune-resistant of “cold” tumors. We also review the latest developments in adjuvant and combination immunotherapy as well as the emerging field of immune-related adverse events which are unique to checkpoint inhibitors and need specific strategies for management.


Melanoma Immunotherapy Intratumoral immunotherapy Adjuvant immunotherapy Combination immunotherapy 


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Hematology/Oncology, MelanomaUniversity of California, San FranciscoSan FranciscoUSA
  2. 2.Department of Melanoma OncologyUniversity of California, San FranciscoSan FranciscoUSA
  3. 3.Department of MedicineUniversity of California, San FranciscoSan FranciscoUSA

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