Advertisement

Melanoma pp 499-514 | Cite as

Radiation Therapy for Melanoma

  • Noelle L. Williams
  • Brittany A. Simone
  • Pramila R. Anné
  • Wenyin Shi
Chapter

Abstract

Radiotherapy works by inducing DNA damage in cancer cells, and there are several different methods of radiotherapy delivery including external beam radiotherapy, stereotactic radiosurgery, stereotactic body radiotherapy, radiospheres, brachytherapy, and particle therapy. Historically, melanoma has been deemed a radioresistant tumor, due to early in vitro studies demonstrating a broad shoulder in cell survival curves as well as a high repair rate, inferring a better tumor response with higher radiation doses. For this reason, hypofractionated regimens have become commonplace in the treatment of melanoma given the tolerability, convenience, and low risk of late effects. Nonetheless, in the treatment of primary melanoma, maximal safe surgical resection offers the greatest likelihood of local control. Radiotherapy as a primary treatment is often offered in well-defined situations, such as medical inoperability due to patient comorbidities or tumor location. Clinically, radiation oncologists most frequently see patients with melanoma for consultation in regard to palliation of metastatic disease (for example, stereotactic radiosurgery for brain metastasis or stereotactic body radiotherapy for lung metastasis). The multiple advancements (including technological developments as well as evolution of systemic therapy and immunotherapy) in the treatment of patients with melanoma highlight the importance of multidisciplinary management in this disease.

Keywords

Radiation treatment Stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) Stereotactic body radiation treatment (SBRT) Melanoma 

References

  1. 1.
    Agrawal S, Kane JM 3rd, Guadagnolo BA, et al. The benefits of adjuvant radiation therapy after therapeutic lymphadenectomy for clinically advanced, high-risk, lymph node-metastatic melanoma. Cancer. 2009;115:5836–44.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Lee RJ, Gibbs JF, Proulx GM, et al. Nodal basin recurrence following lymph node dissection for melanoma: implications for adjuvant radiotherapy. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2000;46:467–74.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Dewey DL. The radiosensitivity of melanoma cells in culture. Br J Radiol. 1971;44:816–7.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Barranco SC, Romsdahl MM, Humphrey RM. The radiation response of human malignant melanoma cells grown in vitro. Cancer Res. 1971;31:830–3.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Sause WT, Cooper JS, Rush S, et al. Fraction size in external beam radiation therapy in the treatment of melanoma. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 1991;20:429–32.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Noda SE, Lautenschlaeger T, Siedow MR, et al. Technological advances in radiation oncology for central nervous system tumors. Semin Radiat Oncol. 2009;19:179–86.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Barnett GH, Linskey ME, Adler JR, et al. Stereotactic radiosurgery—an organized neurosurgery-sanctioned definition. J Neurosurg. 2007;106:1–5.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Bafaloukos D, Gogas H. The treatment of brain metastases in melanoma patients. Cancer Treat Rev. 2004;30:515–20.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Sampson JH, Carter JH Jr, Friedman AH, et al. Demographics, prognosis, and therapy in 702 patients with brain metastases from malignant melanoma. J Neurosurg. 1998;88:11–20.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Fife KM, Colman MH, Stevens GN, et al. Determinants of outcome in melanoma patients with cerebral metastases. J Clin Oncol. 2004;22:1293–300.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Mathieu D, Kondziolka D, Cooper PB, et al. Gamma knife radiosurgery for malignant melanoma brain metastases. Clin Neurosurg. 2007;54:241–7.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Liew DN, Kano H, Kondziolka D, et al. Outcome predictors of gamma knife surgery for melanoma brain metastases. Clinical article. J Neurosurg. 2011;114:769–79.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Ballo MT, Zagars GK, Gershenwald JE, et al. A critical assessment of adjuvant radiotherapy for inguinal lymph node metastases from melanoma. Ann Surg Oncol. 2004;11:1079–84.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Dickson RJ. Malignant melanoma; a combined surgical and radiotherapeutic approach. Am J Roentgenol Radium Ther Nucl Med. 1958;79:1063–70.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Harwood AR, Cummings BJ. Radiotherapy for mucosal melanomas. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 1982;8:1121–6.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Stevens G, Thompson JF, Firth I, et al. Locally advanced melanoma: results of postoperative hypofractionated radiation therapy. Cancer. 2000;88:88–94.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Strom T, Caudell JJ, Han D, et al. Radiotherapy influences local control in patients with desmoplastic melanoma. Cancer. 2014;120:1369–78.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Arora A, Lowe L, Su L, et al. Wide excision without radiation for desmoplastic melanoma. Cancer. 2005;104(7):1462.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    De Groot WP. Provisional results of treatment of the melanose precancereuse circonscrite Dubreuilh by Bucky-rays. Dermatologica. 1968;136:429–31.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Farshad A, Burg G, Panizzon R, et al. A retrospective study of 150 patients with lentigo maligna and lentigo maligna melanoma and the efficacy of radiotherapy using Grenz or soft X-rays. Br J Dermatol. 2002;146(6):1042.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Panizzon R. Radiotherapy of lentigo maligna and lentigo maligna melanoma. Skin Cancer. 1999;14:203–7.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Schmid-Wendtner MH, Brunner B, Konz B, et al. Fractionated radiotherapy of lentigo maligna and lentigo maligna melanoma in 64 patients. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2000;43:477–82.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Fogarty GB, Hong A, Scolyer RA, et al. Radiotherapy for lentigo maligna: a literature review and recommendations for treatment. Br J Dermatol. 2014;170:52–8.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Meleti M, Leemans CR, de Bree R, et al. Head and neck mucosal melanoma: experience with 42 patients, with emphasis on the role of postoperative radiotherapy. Head Neck. 2008;30:1543–51.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Bachar G, Goldstein DP, Shah M, et al. Esthesioneuroblastoma: the Princess Margaret Hospital experience. Head Neck. 2008;30:1607–14.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Krengli M, Masini L, Kaanders JH, et al. Radiotherapy in the treatment of mucosal melanoma of the upper aerodigestive tract: analysis of 74 cases. A Rare Cancer Network study. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2006;65:751–9.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Moreno MA, Roberts DB, Kupferman ME, et al. Mucosal melanoma of the nose and paranasal sinuses, a contemporary experience from the M. D. Anderson Cancer Center. Cancer. 2010;116:2215–23.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Benlyazid A, Thariat J, Temam S, et al. Postoperative radiotherapy in head and neck mucosal melanoma: a GETTEC study. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2010;136:1219–25.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Wu AJ, Gomez J, Zhung JE, et al. Radiotherapy after surgical resection for head and neck mucosal melanoma. Am J Clin Oncol. 2010;33:281–5.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Patel SG, Prasad ML, Escrig M, et al. Primary mucosal malignant melanoma of the head and neck. Head Neck. 2002;24:247–57.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Gilligan D, Slevin NJ. Radical radiotherapy for 28 cases of mucosal melanoma in the nasal cavity and sinuses. Br J Radiol. 1991;64:1147–50.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Wada H, Nemoto K, Ogawa Y, et al. A multi-institutional retrospective analysis of external radiotherapy for mucosal melanoma of the head and neck in Northern Japan. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2004;59:495–500.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Henderson MA, Burmeister BH, Ainslie J, et al. Adjuvant lymph-node field radiotherapy versus observation only in patients with melanoma at high risk of further lymph-node field relapse after lymphadenectomy (ANZMTG 01.02/TROG 02.01): 6-year follow-up of a phase 3, randomised controlled trial. Lancet Oncol. 2015;16:1049–60.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Munzenrider JE. Uveal melanomas. Conservation treatment. Hematol Oncol Clin North Am. 2001;15:389–402.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Stallard HB. Radiotherapy for malignant melanoma of the choroid. Br J Ophthalmol. 1966;50:147–55.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Melia BM, Abramson DH, Albert DM, et al. Collaborative ocular melanoma study (COMS) randomized trial of I-125 brachytherapy for medium choroidal melanoma. I. Visual acuity after 3 years COMS report no. 16. Ophthalmology. 2001;108:348–66.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Perez BA, Mettu P, Vajzovic L, et al. Uveal melanoma treated with iodine-125 episcleral plaque: an analysis of dose on disease control and visual outcomes. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2014;89:127–36.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Jones R, Gore E, Mieler W, et al. Posttreatment visual acuity in patients treated with episcleral plaque therapy for choroidal melanomas: dose and dose rate effects. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2002;52:989–95.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Gragoudas ES, Lane AM, Regan S, et al. A randomized controlled trial of varying radiation doses in the treatment of choroidal melanoma. Arch Ophthalmol. 2000;118:773–8.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Wang Z, Nabhan M, Schild SE, et al. Charged particle radiation therapy for uveal melanoma: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2013;86:18–26.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Fogarty GB, Hong A. Radiation therapy for advanced and metastatic melanoma. J Surg Oncol. 2014;109:370–5.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Hellman S, Weichselbaum RR. Oligometastases. J Clin Oncol. 1995;13:8–10.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Sosman JA, Moon J, Tuthill RJ, et al. A phase 2 trial of complete resection for stage IV melanoma: results of Southwest Oncology Group Clinical Trial S9430. Cancer. 2011;117:4740–06.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Ollila DW, Essner R, Wanek LA, et al. Surgical resection for melanoma metastatic to the gastrointestinal tract. Arch Surg. 1996;131(9.; 979–80):975.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Agrawal S, Yao TJ, Coit DG. Surgery for melanoma metastatic to the gastrointestinal tract. Ann Surg Oncol. 1999;6:336–44.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Harpole DH Jr, Johnson CM, Wolfe WG, et al. Analysis of 945 cases of pulmonary metastatic melanoma. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 1992;103:743–8. discussion748–50PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Milano MT, Katz AW, Muhs AG, et al. A prospective pilot study of curative-intent stereotactic body radiation therapy in patients with 5 or fewer oligometastatic lesions. Cancer. 2008;112:650–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Salama JK, Hasselle MD, Chmura SJ, et al. Stereotactic body radiotherapy for multisite extracranial oligometastases: final report of a dose escalation trial in patients with 1 to 5 sites of metastatic disease. Cancer. 2012;118:2962–70.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Barth A, Wanek LA, Morton DL. Prognostic factors in 1,521 melanoma patients with distant metastases. J Am Coll Surg. 1995;181:193–201.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Andrews DW. Current neurosurgical management of brain metastases. Semin Oncol. 2008;35:100–7.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Thomas SS, Dunbar EM. Modern multidisciplinary management of brain metastases. Curr Oncol Rep. 2010;12:34–40.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Chu FC, Hilaris BB. Value of radiation theray in the management of intracranial metastases. Cancer. 1961;14:577–81.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Meyners T, Heisterkamp C, Kueter JD, et al. Prognostic factors for outcomes after whole-brain irradiation of brain metastases from relatively radioresistant tumors: a retrospective analysis. BMC Cancer. 2010;10:582.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    de la Fuente M, Beal K, Carvajal R, et al. Whole-brain radiotherapy in patients with brain metastases from melanoma. CNS Oncol. 2014;3:401–6.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Chang EL, Wefel JS, Hess KR, et al. Neurocognition in patients with brain metastases treated with radiosurgery or radiosurgery plus whole-brain irradiation: a randomised controlled trial. Lancet Oncol. 2009;10:1037–44.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Brown PD, Jaeckle K, Ballman KV, et al. Effect of radiosurgery alone vs radiosurgery with whole brain radiation therapy on cognitive function in patients with 1 to 3 brain metastases: a randomized clinical trial. JAMA. 2016;316:401–9.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    DiLuna ML, King JT Jr, Knisely JP, et al. Prognostic factors for survival after stereotactic radiosurgery vary with the number of cerebral metastases. Cancer. 2007;109:135–45.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Manon R, O’Neill A, Knisely J, et al. Phase II trial of radiosurgery for one to three newly diagnosed brain metastases from renal cell carcinoma, melanoma, and sarcoma: an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group study (E 6397). J Clin Oncol. 2005;23:8870–6.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Clarke JW, Register S, McGregor JM, et al. Stereotactic radiosurgery with or without whole brain radiotherapy for patients with a single radioresistant brain metastasis. Am J Clin Oncol. 2010;33:70–4.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Powell JW, Chung CT, Shah HR, et al. Gamma Knife surgery in the management of radioresistant brain metastases in high-risk patients with melanoma, renal cell carcinoma, and sarcoma. J Neurosurg. 2008;109(Suppl):122–8.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Lo SS, Clarke JW, Grecula JC, et al. Stereotactic radiosurgery alone for patients with 1–4 radioresistant brain metastases. Med Oncol. 2011;28(Suppl 1):S439–44.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Choong ES, Lo S, Drummond M, et al. Survival of patients with melanoma brain metastasis treated with stereotactic radiosurgery and active systemic drug therapies. Eur J Cancer. 2017;75:169–78.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Feng R, Oermann EK, Shrivastava R, et al. Stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) for melanoma brain metastases: a comprehensive clinical case series. World Neurosurg. 2017;100:297–304.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Yamamoto M, Serizawa T, Shuto T, et al. Stereotactic radiosurgery for patients with multiple brain metastases (JLGK0901): a multi-institutional prospective observational study. Lancet Oncol. 2014;15:387–95.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Rava P, Leonard K, Sioshansi S, et al. Survival among patients with 10 or more brain metastases treated with stereotactic radiosurgery. J Neurosurg. 2013;119:457–62.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Nichol A, Ma R, Hsu F, et al. Volumetric radiosurgery for 1 to 10 brain metastases: a Multicenter, single-arm, phase 2 study. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2016;94:312–21.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    8 Gy single fraction radiotherapy for the treatment of metastatic skeletal pain: randomised comparison with a multifraction schedule over 12 months of patient follow-up. Bone Pain Trial Working Party. J.R. Yarnold Radiother Oncol 1999;52:111–21.Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    Rades D, Stalpers LJ, Hulshof MC, et al. Effectiveness and toxicity of single-fraction radiotherapy with 1 x 8 Gy for metastatic spinal cord compression. Radiother Oncol. 2005;75:70–3.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Maranzano E, Bellavita R, Rossi R, et al. Short-course versus split-course radiotherapy in metastatic spinal cord compression: results of a phase III, randomized, multicenter trial. J Clin Oncol. 2005;23:3358–65.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Chow E, Harris K, Fan G, et al. Palliative radiotherapy trials for bone metastases: a systematic review. J Clin Oncol. 2007;25:1423–36.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Lutz S, Berk L, Chang E, et al. Palliative radiotherapy for bone metastases: an ASTRO evidence-based guideline. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2011;79:965–76.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Rule W, Timmerman R, Tong L, et al. Phase I dose-escalation study of stereotactic body radiotherapy in patients with hepatic metastases. Ann Surg Oncol. 2011;18:1081–7.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Lo SS, Teh BS, Mayr NA, et al. Stereotactic body radiation therapy for oligometastases. Discov Med. 2010;10:247–54.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Timmerman R, Paulus R, Galvin J, et al. Stereotactic body radiation therapy for inoperable early stage lung cancer. JAMA. 2010;303:1070–6.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Rusthoven KE, Kavanagh BD, Cardenes H, et al. Multi-institutional phase I/II trial of stereotactic body radiation therapy for liver metastases. J Clin Oncol. 2009;27:1572–8.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Hoyer M, Roed H, Traberg Hansen A, et al. Phase II study on stereotactic body radiotherapy of colorectal metastases. Acta Oncol. 2006;45:823–30.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Chawla S, Chen Y, Katz AW, et al. Stereotactic body radiotherapy for treatment of adrenal metastases. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2009;75:71–5.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Gerszten PC, Burton SA, Ozhasoglu C, et al. Radiosurgery for spinal metastases: clinical experience in 500 cases from a single institution. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2007;32:193–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Leiter U, Meier F, Schittek B, et al. The natural course of cutaneous melanoma. J Surg Oncol. 2004;86:172–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Cohn-Cedermark G, Mansson-Brahme E, Rutqvist LE, et al. Metastatic patterns, clinical outcome, and malignant phenotype in malignant cutaneous melanoma. Acta Oncol. 1999;38:549–57.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Becker JC, Terheyden P, Kampgen E, et al. Treatment of disseminated ocular melanoma with sequential fotemustine, interferon alpha, and interleukin 2. Br J Cancer. 2002;87:840–5.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Trout AT, Rabinowitz RS, Platt JF, et al. Melanoma metastases in the abdomen and pelvis: frequency and patterns of spread. World J Radiol. 2013;5:25–32.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Gonsalves CF, Eschelman DJ, Sullivan KL, et al. Radioembolization as salvage therapy for hepatic metastasis of uveal melanoma: a single-institution experience. Am J Roentgenol. 2011;196:468–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Mariani P, Almubarak MM, Kollen M, et al. Radiofrequency ablation and surgical resection of liver metastases from uveal melanoma. Eur J Surg Oncol. 2016;42:706–12.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Eldredge-Hindy H, Ohri N, Anne PR, et al. Yttrium-90 microsphere brachytherapy for liver metastases from uveal melanoma: clinical outcomes and the predictive value of fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography. Am J Clin Oncol. 2016;39:189–95.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Xing M, Prajapati HJ, Dhanasekaran R, et al. Selective internal yttrium-90 radioembolization therapy (90Y-SIRT) versus best supportive care in patients with unresectable metastatic melanoma to the liver refractory to systemic therapy: safety and efficacy cohort study. Am J Clin Oncol. 2017;40:27–34.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Memon K, Kuzel TM, Vouche M, et al. Hepatic yttrium-90 radioembolization for metastatic melanoma: a single-center experience. Melanoma Res. 2014;24:244–51.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Kennedy A. Radioembolization of hepatic tumors. J Gastrointest Oncol. 2014;5:178–89.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Memon K, Lewandowski RJ, Mulcahy MF, et al. Radioembolization for neuroendocrine liver metastases: safety, imaging, and long-term outcomes. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2012;83:887–94.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Dezarn WA, Cessna JT, DeWerd LA, et al. Recommendations of the American Association of Physicists in Medicine on dosimetry, imaging, and quality assurance procedures for 90Y microsphere brachytherapy in the treatment of hepatic malignancies. Med Phys. 2011;38:4824–45.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Piduru SM, Schuster DM, Barron BJ, et al. Prognostic value of 18f-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography-computed tomography in predicting survival in patients with unresectable metastatic melanoma to the liver undergoing yttrium-90 radioembolization. J Vasc Interv Radiol. 2012;23:943–8.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Klingenstein A, Haug AR, Zech CJ, et al. Radioembolization as locoregional therapy of hepatic metastases in uveal melanoma patients. Cardiovasc Intervent Radiol. 2013;36:158–65.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Tothill R, Estall V, Rischin D. Merkel cell carcinoma: emerging biology, current approaches, and future directions. Am Soc Clin Oncol Educ Book.2015:e519–26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Kassem A, Schopflin A, Diaz C, et al. Frequent detection of Merkel cell polyomavirus in human Merkel cell carcinomas and identification of a unique deletion in the VP1 gene. Cancer Res. 2008;68(13):5009.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Feng H, Shuda M, Chang Y, et al. Clonal integration of a polyomavirus in human Merkel cell carcinoma. Science. 2008;319:1096–100.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Ramahi E, Choi J, Fuller CD, et al. Merkel cell carcinoma. Am J Clin Oncol. 2013;36:299–309.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Gupta SG, Wang LC, Penas PF, et al. Sentinel lymph node biopsy for evaluation and treatment of patients with Merkel cell carcinoma: the Dana-Farber experience and meta-analysis of the literature. Arch Dermatol. 2006;142:685–90.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Bichakjian CK, Lowe L, Lao CD, et al. Merkel cell carcinoma: critical review with guidelines for multidisciplinary management. Cancer. 2007;110:1–12.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Lewis KG, Weinstock MA, Weaver AL, et al. Adjuvant local irradiation for Merkel cell carcinoma. Arch Dermatol. 2006;142:693–700.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Jouary T, Leyral C, Dreno B, et al. Adjuvant prophylactic regional radiotherapy versus observation in stage I Merkel cell carcinoma: a multicentric prospective randomized study. Ann Oncol. 2012;23:1074–80.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Kim JA, Choi AH. Effect of radiation therapy on survival in patients with resected Merkel cell carcinoma: a propensity score surveillance, epidemiology, and end results database analysis. JAMA Dermatol. 2013;149:831–8.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Rush Z, Fields RC, Lee N, et al. Radiation therapy in the management of Merkel cell carcinoma: current perspectives. Expert Rev Dermatol. 2011;6:395–404.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Desch L, Kunstfeld R. Merkel cell carcinoma: chemotherapy and emerging new therapeutic options. J Skin Cancer. 2013;2013:327150.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Anker CJ, Grossmann KF, Atkins MB, et al. Avoiding severe toxicity from combined BRAF inhibitor and radiation treatment: consensus guidelines from the eastern cooperative oncology group (ECOG). Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2016;95:632–46.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Nagorsen D, Scheibenbogen C, Marincola FM, et al. Natural T cell immunity against cancer. Clin Cancer Res. 2003;9:4296–303.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Hakansson A, Gustafsson B, Krysander L, et al. Tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes in metastatic malignant melanoma and response to interferon alpha treatment. Br J Cancer. 1996;74:670–6.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Mihm MC Jr, Clemente CG, Cascinelli N. Tumor infiltrating lymphocytes in lymph node melanoma metastases: a histopathologic prognostic indicator and an expression of local immune response. Lab Investig. 1996;74:43–7.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Moschos SJ, Edington HD, Land SR, et al. Neoadjuvant treatment of regional stage IIIB melanoma with high-dose interferon alfa-2b induces objective tumor regression in association with modulation of tumor infiltrating host cellular immune responses. J Clin Oncol. 2006;24:3164–71.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Chajon E, Castelli J, Marsiglia H, et al. The synergistic effect of radiotherapy and immunotherapy: a promising but not simple partnership. Crit Rev Oncol Hematol. 2017;111:124–32.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Hiniker SM, Chen DS, Reddy S, et al. A systemic complete response of metastatic melanoma to local radiation and immunotherapy. Transl Oncol. 2012;5:404–7.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Mohiuddin M, Park H, Hallmeyer S, et al. High-dose radiation as a dramatic, immunological primer in locally advanced melanoma. Cureus. 2015;7:e417.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Wolchok JD, Hoos A, O’Day S, et al. Guidelines for the evaluation of immune therapy activity in solid tumors: immune-related response criteria. Clin Cancer Res. 2009;15:7412–20.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Mole RH. Whole body irradiation; radiobiology or medicine? Br J Radiol. 1953;26:234–41.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Postow MA, Callahan MK, Barker CA, et al. Immunologic correlates of the abscopal effect in a patient with melanoma. N Engl J Med. 2012;366:925–31.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Grimaldi AM, Simeone E, Giannarelli D, et al. Abscopal effects of radiotherapy on advanced melanoma patients who progressed after ipilimumab immunotherapy. Oncoimmunology. 2014;3:e28780.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Gyorki DE, Ainslie J, Joon ML, et al. Concurrent adjuvant radiotherapy and interferon-alpha2b for resected high risk stage III melanoma—a retrospective single centre study. Melanoma Res. 2004;14:223–30.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Nguyen NP, Levinson B, Dutta S, et al. Concurrent interferon-alpha and radiation for head and neck melanoma. Melanoma Res. 2003;13:67–71.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Conill C, Jorcano S, Domingo-Domenech J, et al. Toxicity of combined treatment of adjuvant irradiation and interferon alpha2b in high-risk melanoma patients. Melanoma Res. 2007;17:304–9.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Noelle L. Williams
    • 1
  • Brittany A. Simone
    • 1
  • Pramila R. Anné
    • 1
  • Wenyin Shi
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Radiation Oncology, Sidney Kimmel Medical CollegeThomas Jefferson UniversityPhiladelphiaUSA

Personalised recommendations