Advertisement

Melanoma pp 27-37 | Cite as

Melanoma Epidemiology and Prevention

  • Sowmiya Murali
  • Mary E. Logue
  • Yvonne Talamantes
  • Marianne Berwick
Chapter

Abstract

Cutaneous melanoma is increasing in incidence, both in the United States and throughout the world. Risk factors for melanoma are based on host factors, such as freckling, high numbers of nevi, fair skin, and hair and light (non-brown) eyes. These host factors are modified by exposures, particularly ultraviolet radiation from the sun or tanning beds; however, among additional environmental factors, such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), it is likely that PCBs interact with sun exposure to increase melanoma incidence. Genetic factors are under intensive investigation, both inherited mutations and somatic tumor mutations. Prevention of melanoma is based upon improving the education of society to avoid high levels of ultraviolet radiation. Australia is the leader in developing consistent and widespread programs. Screening for melanoma is recommended for high-risk patients.

Keywords

Tanning bed Nevi Phenotype Sunscreens Screening Prevention 

References

  1. 1.
    Howlader N, Noone AM, Krapsho M, Miller D, Bishop K, Altekruse SF, et al., editors. SEER cancer statistics review, 1975–2013. Bethesda, MD., http://seer.cancer.gov/csr/1975-2013/, based on November 2015 SEER data submission, to the SEER web site, April: National Cancer Institute; 2016.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Gandini S, Sera F, Cattaruzza MS, Pasquini P, Zanetti R, Masini C, et al. Meta-analysis of risk factors for cutaneous melanoma: III: family history, actinic damage and phenotypic factors. Eur J Cancer. 2005;41:2040–59.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Armstrong BK, Kricker A. The epidemiology of UV induced skin cancer. J Photochem Photobiol B. 2001;63:8–18.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Fears TR, Bird CC, Guerry D, Sagebiel RW, Gail MH, Elder DE, et al. Average midrange ultraviolet radiation flux and time outdoors predict melanoma risk. Cancer Res. 2002;62:3992–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Zanetti R, Prota G, Napolitano A, Martinez C, Sancho-Garnier H, Østerlind A, et al. Development of an integrated method of skin phenotype measurement using the melanins. Melanoma Res. 2001;11:551–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Goldstein AM, Tucker MA. Dysplastic nevi and melanoma. Cancer Epidemiol Biomark Prev. 2013;22:528–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Marks R. Epidemiology of melanoma. Clin Exp Dermatol. 2000;25:459–63.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Gallagher RP, Rivers JK, Lee TK, Bajdik CD, McLean DI, Coldman AJ. Broad-spectrum sunscreen use and the development of new nevi in white children: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 2000;283:2955–60.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Milne E, Johnston R, Cross D, Giles-Corti B, English DR. Effect of a school-based sun-protection intervention on the development of melanocytic nevi in children. Am J Epidemiol. 2002;155:739–45.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Autier P, Boniol M, Severi G, Pedeux R, Grivegnée AR, Doré JF. Sex differences in numbers of nevi on body sites of young European children: implications for the etiology of cutaneous melanoma. Cancer Epidemiol Biomark Prev. 2004;13:2003–5.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Stierner U, Augustsson A, Rosdahl I, Suurküla M. Regional distribution of common and dysplastic naevi in relation to melanoma site and sun exposure. A case-control study. Melanoma Res. 1992;1:367–75.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Gandini S, Sera F, Cattaruzza MS, Pasquini P, Abeni D, Boyle P, Melchi CF. Meta-analysis of risk factors for cutaneous melanoma: I. Common and atypical naevi. Eur J Cancer. 2005a;41:28–44.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Whiteman DC, Watt P, Purdie DM, Hughes MC, Hayward NK, Green AC. Melanocytic nevi, solar keratoses, and divergent pathways to cutaneous melanoma. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2003;95:806–12.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    International Agency for Research on Cancer Working Group on artificial ultraviolet (UV) light and skin cancer. The association of use of sunbeds with cutaneous malignant melanoma and other skin cancers: a systematic review. Int J Cancer. 2007;120:1116–22.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Matsumura Y, Ananthaswamy HN. Toxic effects of ultraviolet radiation on the skin. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2004;195:298–308.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Parkin DM, Mesher D, Sasieni P. Cancers attributable to solar (ultraviolet) radiation exposure in the UK in 2010. Br J Cancer. 2011;105:66–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Armstrong BK, Kricker A. How much melanoma is caused by sun exposure? Melanoma Res. 1993;3:395–401.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Chang C, Murzaku EC, Penn L, Abbasi NR, Davis PD, Berwick M, et al. More skin, more sun, more tan, more melanoma. Am J Public Health. 2014;104:92–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Gandini S, Sera F, Cattaruzza M, Pasquini P, Picconi O, Boyle P, et al. Meta-analysis of risk factors for cutaneous melanoma: II. Sun exposure. Eur J Cancer. 2005b;41:45–60.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Kricker A, Armstrong BK, Goumas C, Litchfield M, Begg CB, Hummer AJ, et al. Ambient UV, personal sun exposure and risk of multiple primary melanomas. Cancer Causes Control. 2007;18:295–304.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Pfahlberg A, Kölmel KF, Gefeller O. Timing of excessive ultraviolet radiation and melanoma: epidemiology does not support the existence of a critical period of high susceptibility to solar ultraviolet radiation- induced melanoma. Br J Dermatol. 2001;144(3):471–5.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Whiteman DC, Whiteman CA, Green AC. Childhood sun exposure as a risk factor for melanoma: a systematic review of epidemiologic studies. Cancer Causes Control. 2001;12:69–82.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Guy GP, Berkowitz Z, Holman DM, Hartman AM. Recent changes in the prevalence of and factors associated with frequency of indoor tanning among US adults. JAMA Dermatol. 2015;151:1256–9.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Hornung RL, Magee KH, Lee WJ, Hansen LA, Hsieh YC. Tanning facility use: are we exceeding Food and Drug Administration limits? J Am Acad Dermatol. 2003;49:655–61.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Lazovich D, Vogel RI, Weinstock MA, Nelson HH, Ahmed RL, Berwick M. Association between indoor tanning and melanoma in younger men and women. JAMA Dermatol. 2016;152:268–75.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Lazovich D, Vogel RI, Berwick M, Weinstock MA, Anderson KE, Warshaw EM. Indoor tanning and risk of melanoma: a case-control study in a highly exposed population. Cancer Epidemiol Biomark Prev. 2010;19:1557–68.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Héry C, Tryggvadóttir L, Sigurdsson T, Ólafsdóttir E, Sigurgeirsson B, Jonasson JG, et al. A melanoma epidemic in Iceland: possible influence of sunbed use. Am J Epidemiol. 2010;172:762–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Bulbulyan MA, Ilychova SA, Zahm SH, Astashevsky SV, Zaridze DG. Cancer mortality among women in the Russian printing industry. Am J Ind Med. 1999;36:166–71.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Nielsen H, Henriksen L, Olsen JH. Malignant melanoma among lithographers. Scand J Work Environ Health. 1996;22:106–11.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Linet MS, Malker HS, Chow WH, McLaughlin JK, Weiner JA, Stone BJ, et al. Occupational risks for cutaneous melanoma among men in Sweden. J Occup Environ Med. 1995;37:1127–35.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    McLaughlin JK, Malker HS, Blot WJ, Ericsson JL, Gemne G, Fraumeni JF, JR. Malignant melanoma in the printing industry. Am J Ind Med. 1988;13:301–4.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Dubrow R. Malignant melanoma in the printing industry. Am J Ind Med. 1986;10:119–26.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Robinson CF, Petersen M, Palu S. Mortality patterns among electrical workers employed in the U.S. construction industry. Am J Ind Med. 1999;36:630–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    DeTrolio R, Di Lorenzo G, Fumo B, Ascierto PA. Cosmic radiation and cancer: is there a link? JAMA Dermatol. 2015;151:51–8.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Sanlorenzo M, Wehner MR, Linos E, Kornak J, Kainz W, Posch C, et al. The risk of melanoma in airline pilots and cabin crew: a meta-analysis. Occup Environ Med. 2014;71:398–404.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Pukkala E, Martinsen JI, Weiderpass E, Kjaerheim K, Lynge E, Tryggvadottir L, et al. Cancer incidence among firefighters: 45 years of follow-up in five Nordic countries. Occup Environ Med. 2014;71:398–404.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Wang L, Ding G, Zhou Z, Liu X, Wang Y, Xie HQ, et al. Patterns and dietary intake of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans in food products in China. J Environ Sci (China). 2017;51:165–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Wood SA, Armitage JM, Binnington MJ, Wania F. Deterministic modeling of the exposure of individual participants in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) to polychlorinated biphenyls. Environ Sci Process Impacts. 2016;18:1157–68.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Fromberg A, Granby K, Hajgard A, Fagr S, Larsen JC. Estimation of dietary intake of PCB and organochlorine pesticides for children and adults. Food Chem. 2011;125:1179–87.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Donat-Vargas C, Berglund M, Glynn A, Wolk A, Åkesson A. Dietary polychlorinated biphenyls, long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and incidence of malignant melanoma. Eur J Cancer. 2017;72:137–43.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Gallagher RP, Macarthur AC, Lee TK, Weber JP, Leblanc A, Elwood MJ, et al. Plasma levels of polychlorinated biphenyls and risk of cutaneous malignant melanoma: a preliminary study. Int J Cancer. 2011;128:1872–80.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Meyskens FL, Yang S. Thinking about the role (largely ignored) of heavy metals in cancer prevention: hexavalent chromium and melanoma as a case in point. Recent Results Cancer Res. 2011;188:65–74.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Rizzi M, Cravello B, Renò F. Textile industry manufacturing by-products induce human melanoma cell proliferation via ERK1/2 activation. Cell Prolif. 2014;47:578–86.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Visuri TI, Pukkala E, Pulkkinen P, Paavolainen P. Cancer incidence and causes of death among total hip replacement patients: a review based on Nordic cohorts with a special emphasis on metal-on-metal bearings. Proc Inst Mech Eng H. 2006;220:399–407.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Onega T, Baron J, MacKenzie T. Cancer after total joint arthroplasty: a meta-analysis. Cancer Epidemiol Biomark Prev. 2006;15:1532–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Nyren O, McLaughlin JK, Gridley G, Ekborn A, Johnell O, Fraumeni JR Jr, Adami HO. Cancer risk after hip replacement with metal implants: a population-based cohort study in Sweden. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1995;87:28–33.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Hill VK, Gartner JJ, Samuels Y, Goldstein AM. The genetics of melanoma: recent advances. Annu Rev Genomics Hum Genet. 2013;14:257–79.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Zhang T, Dutton-Regester K, Brown KM, Hayward NK. The genomic landscape of cutaneous melanoma. Pigment Cell Melanoma Res. 2016;29:266–83.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Markovic SN, Erickson LA, Rao RD, Weenig RH, Pockaj BA, Bardia A, et al. Malignant melanoma in the 21st century, Part 1: Epidemiology, risk factors, screening, prevention, and diagnosis. Mayo Clin Proc. 2007;82:364–80.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Cho E, Rosner BA, Colditz GA. Risk factors for melanoma by body site. Cancer Epidemiol Biomark Prev. 2005;14:1241–4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Berwick M, Orlow I, Hummer AJ, Armstrong BK, Kricker A, Marrett LD, et al. The prevalence of CDKN2A germ-line mutations and relative risk for cutaneous malignant melanoma: an international population-based study. Cancer Epidemiol Biomark Prev. 2006;15:1520–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Barnhill RL, Roush GC, Titus-Ernstoff L, Ernstoff MS, Duray PH, Kirkwood JM. Comparison of nonfamilial and familial melanoma. Dermatology. 1992;184:2–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Ferrone CR, Ben Porat L, Panageas KS, Berwick M, Halpern AC, Patel A, et al. Clinicopathological features of and risk factors for multiple primary melanomas. JAMA. 2005;294:1647–54.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Barón AE, Asdigian NL, Gonzalez V, Aalborg J, Terzian T, Stiegmann RA. Interactions between ultraviolet light and MC1R and OCA2 variants are determinants of childhood nevus and freckle phenotypes. Cancer Epidemiol Biomark Prev. 2014;23:2829–39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Beaumont KA, Shekar SN, Cook AL, Duffy DL, Sturm RA. Red hair is the null phenotype of MC1R. Hum Mutat. 2008;29:88–94.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    García-Borrón JC, Abdel-Malek Z, Jiménez-Cervantes C. MC1R, the cAMP pathway, and the response to solar UV: extending the horizon beyond pigmentation. Pigment Cell Melanoma Res. 2014;27:699–720.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Cassidy PB, Abdel-Malek Z, Leachman SA. Beyond red hair and sunburns: uncovering the molecular mechanisms of MC1R signaling and repair of UV-induced DNA damage. J Invest Dermatol. 2015;135:2918–21.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Jarrett SG, Wolf Horrell EM, Boulanger MC, D’Orazio JA. Defining the contribution of MC1R physiological ligands to ATR phosphorylation at Ser435, a predictor of DNA repair in melanocytes. J Invest Dermatol. 2015;135:3086–95.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Denat L, Kadekaro AL, Marrot L, Leachman SA, Abdel-Malek ZA. Melanocytes as instigators and victims of oxidative stress. J Invest Dermatol. 2014;134:1512–8.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Wendt J, Rauscher S, Burgstaller-Muehlbacher S, Fae I, Fischer G, Pehamberger H, et al. Human determinants and the role of melanocortin-1 receptor variants in melanoma risk independent of UV radiation exposure. JAMA Dermatol. 2016;152:776–82.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Pasquali E, Garcia-Borron JC, Fargnoli MC, Gandini S, Maisonneuve P, Bagnardi V, et al. MC1R variants increased the risk of sporadic cutaneous melanoma in darker-pigmented Caucasians: a pooled-analysis from the M-SKIP project. Int J Cancer. 2015;136:618–31.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Hodis E, Watson IR, Kryukov GV, Arold ST, Imielinski M, Theurillat JP, et al. A landscape of driver mutations in melanoma. Cell. 2012;150:251–63.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Krauthammer M, Kong Y, Ha BH, Evans P, Bacchiocchi A, McCusker JP, et al. Exome sequencing identifies recurrent somatic RAC1 mutations in melanoma. Nat Genet. 2012;44(9):1006–14.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Thomas NE, Kanetsky PA, Edmiston SN, Alexander A, Begg CB, Groben PA, et al. Relationship between germline MC1R variants and BRAF-mutant melanoma in a North Carolina population-based study. J Invest Dermatol. 2010;130:1463–5.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Hacker E, Olsen CM, Kvaskoff M, Pandeya N, Yeo A, Green AC. Histologic and phenotypic factors and MC1R status associated with BRAFV600E, BRAFV600K, and NRAS mutations in a community-based sample of 414 cutaneous melanomas. J Invest Dermatol. 2016;136:829–37.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Hugdahl E, Kalvenes MB, Puntervoll HE, Ladstein RG, Akslen LA. BRAF-V600E expression in primary nodular melanoma is associated with aggressive tumour features and reduced survival. Br J Cancer. 2016;114:801–8.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Thomas NE, Edmiston SN, Alexander A, Groben PA, Parrish E, Kricker A, et al. Association between NRAS and BRAF mutational status and melanoma-specific survival among patients with higher-risk primary melanoma. JAMA Oncol. 2015;1:359–68.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Mounessa J, Buntinx-Krieg T, Qin R, Dunnick CA, Dellavalle RP. Primary and secondary chemoprevention of malignant melanoma. Am J Clin Dermatol. 2016;17:625–34.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Moyer VA, U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. Vitamin, mineral, and multivitamin supplements for the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease and cancer: US Preventive Services Task Force recommendation statement. Ann Intern Med. 2014;160:558–64.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Dennis LK, Vanbeek MJ, Freeman LEB, Smith BJ, Dawson DV, Coughlin JA. Sunburns and risk of cutaneous melanoma: does age matter? A comprehensive meta-analysis. Ann Epidemiol. 2008;18:614–27.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Rouhani P, Parmet Y, Bessell AG, Peay T, Weiss A, Kirsner RS. Knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors of elementary school students regarding sun exposure and skin cancer. Pediatr Dermatol. 2009;26:529–35.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Hall HI, Jorgensen CM, McDavid K, Kraft JM, Breslow R. Protection from sun exposure in US white children ages 6 months to 11 years. Public Health Rep. 2001;116:353–61.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Buller DB, Cokkinides V, Hall HI, Hartman AM, Saraiya M, Miller E, et al. Prevalence of sunburn, sun protection, and indoor tanning behaviors among Americans: review from national surveys and case studies of 3 states. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2011;65:114–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Green AC, Williams GM, Logan V, Strutton GM. Reduced melanoma after regular sunscreen use: randomized trial follow-up. J Clin Oncol. 2011;29:257–63.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Lazovich D, Vogel RI, Berwick M, Weinstock MA, Warshaw EM, Anderson KE. Melanoma risk in relation to use of sunscreen or other sun protection methods. Cancer Epidemiol Biomark Prev. 2011;20:2583–93.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Marrett LD, Chu MB, Atkinson J, Nuttall R, Bromfield G, Hershfield L, et al. An update to the recommended core content for sun safety messages for public eduction in Canada: a consensus report. Can J Public Health. 2016;207:473–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    García-Romero MT, Geller AC, Kawachi I. Using behavioral economics to promote healthy behavior toward sun exposure in adolescents and young adults. Prev Med. 2015;81:184–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Ettridge KA, Bowden JA, Rayner JM, Wilson CJ. The relationship between sun protection policy and associated practices in a national sample of early childhood services in Australia. Health Educ Res. 2011;26:53–62.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Wright CY, Reeder AI, Albers PN. Knowledge and practice of sun protection in schools in South Africa where no national sun protection programme exists. Health Educ Res. 2016;31:247–59.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Community Preventive Services Task Force. Preventing skin cancer: primary and middle school-based interventions; 2012. https://www.thecommunityguide.org/sites/default/files/assets/Skin-Cancer-Primary-and-Middle-School.pdf. Accessed: 20 Jan 2017.
  81. 81.
    Montague M, Borland R, Sinclair C. Slip! slop! slap! and SunSmart, 1980–2000: skin cancer control and 20 years of population-based campaigning. Health Educ Behav. 2001;28:290–305.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Giles-Corti B, English DR, Costa C, Milne E, Cross D, Johnston R. Creating sunsmart schools. Health Educ Res. 2004;19:98–109.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Cancer Council Victoria: History of Sun Smart. http://www.sunsmart.com.au/about/history. Accessed 18 Feb 2017.
  84. 84.
    Whiteman DC, Green AC, Olsen CM. The growing burden of invasive melanoma: projections of incidence rates and numbers of new cases in six susceptible populations through 2013. J Invest Dermatol. 2016;136:1164–71.Google Scholar
  85. 85.
    World Health Organization. Sun Protection and schools: How to make a difference. World Health Organization, 2003. http://www.who.int/uv/publications/en/sunprotschools.pdf. Accessed 20 Jan 2017.
  86. 86.
    Kyle JW, Hammitt JK, Lim HW, Geller AC, Hall-Jordan LH, Maibach EW, et al. Economic evaluation of the US Environmental Protection Agency’s SunWise program: sun protection education for young children. Pediatrics. 2008;121:e1074–84.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Dono J, Ettridge KA, Sharplin GR, Wilson CJ. The relationship between sun protection policies and practices in schools with primary-age students: the role of school demographics, policy comprehensiveness and SunSmart membership. Health Educ Res. 2014;29:1–12.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Geller AC, Glanz K, Shigaki D, Isnec MR, Sun T, Maddock J. Impact of skin cancer prevention on outdoor aquatics staff: the pool cool program in Hawaii and Massachusetts. Prev Med. 2001;33:155–61.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Glanz K, Geller AC, Shigaki D, Maddock JE, Isnec MR. A randomized trial of skin cancer prevention in aquatics settings: the pool cool program. Health Psychol. 2002;21:579–87.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    US Preventive Services Task Force, Bibbins-Domingo K, Grossman DC, Curry SJ, Davidson KW, Ebell M, et al. Screening for skin cancer: US preventive services task force recommendation statement. JAMA. 2016;316:429–35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Katalinic A, Waldmann A, Weinstock MA, Geller AC, Eisemann N, Greinert R, et al. Does skin cancer screening save lives? An observational study comparing trends in melanoma mortality in regions with and without screening. Cancer. 2012;118:5395–402.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Stang A, Garbe C, Autier P, Jockel KH. The many unanswered questions related to the German skin cancer screening programme. Eur J Cancer. 2016;64:83–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Stang A, Jockel KH. Does skin cancer screening save lives? A detailed analysis of mortality time trends in Schleswig-Holstein and Germany. Cancer. 2016;122:432–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Schoffer O, Schülein S, Arand G, Arnholdt H, Baaske D, Bargou RC, et al. Tumour stage distribution and survival of malignant melanoma in Germany 2002–2011. BMC Cancer. 2016;16:936.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Boniol M, Autier P, Gandini S. Melanoma mortality following skin cancer screening in Germany. BMJ Open. 2015;5:e008158.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Ferris LK, Saul MI, Lin Y, Deng F, Weinstock MA, Geller AC, et al. A large skin cancer screening quality initiative. Description and first-year outcomes. JAMA Oncol. 2017.; [Epub ahead of print]Google Scholar
  97. 97.
    Aitken JF, Elwood M, Baade PD, Youl P, English D. Clinical whole-body skin examination reduces the incidence of thick melanomas. Int J Cancer. 2010;126:450–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Brunssen A, Waldmann A, Eisemann N, Katalinic A. Impact of skin cancer screening and secondary prevention campaigns on skin cancer incidence and mortality: a systematic review. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2017;76:129–39.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Watts CG, Cust AE, Menzies SW, Mann GJ, Morton RL. Cost-effectiveness of skin surveillance through a specialized clinic for patients at high risk of melanoma. J Clin Oncol. 2017;35:63–71.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Merlino G, Herlyn M, Fisher DE, Bastian BC, Flaherty KT, Davies MA, et al. The state of melanoma: challenges and opportunities. Pigment Cell Melanoma Res. 2016;29:404–16.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Hoorens I, Vossaert K, Pil L, Boone B, De Schepper S, Ongenae K, et al. Total-body examination vs lesion-directed skin cancer screening. JAMA Dermatol. 2016;152:27–34.1.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Weinstock MA, Risica PM, Martin RA, Rakowski W, Smith KJ, Berwick M, et al. Reliability of assessment and circumstances of performance of thorough skin self-examination for the early detection of melanoma in the Check-It-Out Project. Prev Med. 2004;38:761–5.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Paddock LE, Lu SE, Bandera EV, Rhoads GG, Fine J, Paine S, et al. Skin self-examination and long-term melanoma survival. Melanoma Res. 2016;26:401–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sowmiya Murali
    • 1
  • Mary E. Logue
    • 2
  • Yvonne Talamantes
    • 3
  • Marianne Berwick
    • 4
  1. 1.University of New MexicoAlbuquerqueUSA
  2. 2.School of Medicine, University of New MexicoAlbuquerqueUSA
  3. 3.CRTC Population Science Academic UnitAlbuquerqueUSA
  4. 4.Department of Internal Medicine and DermatologyUniversity of New MexicoAlbuquerqueUSA

Personalised recommendations