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Somaclonal Variation for Sugarcane Improvement

  • Pooja Manchanda
  • Ajinder Kaur
  • Satbir Singh Gosal
Chapter

Abstract

Cell and tissue culture approaches serve as an important and an easily accessible source for the creation and utilization of variability in sugarcane improvement programmes. This variation arising from cell and tissue cultures is called somaclonal variation that can be genetic/epigenetic in nature. Somaclonal variation is considered as a complex phenomenon resulting from various genetic and cellular mechanisms under in vitro conditions. The induction of variation under in vitro conditions either through shock treatment or in stepwise manner generates useful variability without sexual recombination. Due to limited genetic system and/or narrow genetic base, somaclonal variation is more rewarding in sugarcane. During plant propagation process under laboratory conditions, the genomic shock is induced which can result in the activation of various transposons, retrotransposons, chromosomal changes, methylation and demethylation of DNA leading to somaclonal variation. Desirable variants (disease resistant, herbicide resistant, drought tolerant, salt tolerant, antibiotic resistant, etc.) have been isolated in sugarcane through in vitro selection. The frequency of variation can be further enhanced using physical and chemical mutagens. ‘Ono’, ‘Phule Savitri’ and ‘VSI 434’ are the sugarcane varieties released through the process of somaclonal variation.

Keywords

Callus Epigenetic Genetic Regeneration Somaclonal variation Sugarcane 

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Pooja Manchanda
    • 1
  • Ajinder Kaur
    • 1
  • Satbir Singh Gosal
    • 2
  1. 1.School of Agricultural Biotechnology, Punjab Agricultural UniversityLudhianaIndia
  2. 2.Punjab Agricultural UniversityLudhianaIndia

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