Somaclonal Variation for Sugarcane Improvement

  • Pooja Manchanda
  • Ajinder Kaur
  • Satbir Singh Gosal


Cell and tissue culture approaches serve as an important and an easily accessible source for the creation and utilization of variability in sugarcane improvement programmes. This variation arising from cell and tissue cultures is called somaclonal variation that can be genetic/epigenetic in nature. Somaclonal variation is considered as a complex phenomenon resulting from various genetic and cellular mechanisms under in vitro conditions. The induction of variation under in vitro conditions either through shock treatment or in stepwise manner generates useful variability without sexual recombination. Due to limited genetic system and/or narrow genetic base, somaclonal variation is more rewarding in sugarcane. During plant propagation process under laboratory conditions, the genomic shock is induced which can result in the activation of various transposons, retrotransposons, chromosomal changes, methylation and demethylation of DNA leading to somaclonal variation. Desirable variants (disease resistant, herbicide resistant, drought tolerant, salt tolerant, antibiotic resistant, etc.) have been isolated in sugarcane through in vitro selection. The frequency of variation can be further enhanced using physical and chemical mutagens. ‘Ono’, ‘Phule Savitri’ and ‘VSI 434’ are the sugarcane varieties released through the process of somaclonal variation.


Callus Epigenetic Genetic Regeneration Somaclonal variation Sugarcane 


  1. Abdullah, Smiullah, Khan FA et al (2013) Detection of somaclonal variation in micropropagated plants of sugarcane and SCMV screening through ELISA. J Agr Sci 5:199–208Google Scholar
  2. Abreu IS, Carvalho CR, Clarindo WR (2014) Massal induction of Carica papaya L. ‘Golden’ somatic embryos and somaclone screening by flow cytometry and cytogenetic analysis. Cytologia 79:475–484CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Adams RLP (1990) DNA methylation: the effect of minor bases on DNA protein interactions. Biochem J 265:309–320PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Ahloowalia BS, Maretzki A (1983) Plant regeneration via somatic embryogenesis in sugarcane. Plant Cell Rep 2:21–25PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Ahloowalia BS, Sherington J (1985) Transmission of somaclonal variation in wheat. Euphytica 34:525–537CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Ahmed EU, Hayashi T, Yazawa S (2004) Auxins increase the occurrence of leaf-colour variants in Caladium regenerated from leaf explants. Sci Hort 100:153–159CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Ahuja MR (1998) Somaclonal genetics of forest trees. In: Jain SM, Brar DS, Ahloowalia BS (eds) Somaclonal variation and induced mutations in crop improvement. Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, pp 105–121CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Ali A, Naz S, Alam S et al (2007) In vitro induced mutation for screening of red rot (Colletotrichum falcatum) resistance in sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum). Pak J Bot 39:1979–1994Google Scholar
  9. Araujo LG, Prabhu AS, Filippi MC et al (2001) RAPD analysis of blast resistant somaclones from upland rice cultivar IAC 47 for genetic divergence. Plant Cell Tissue Organ Cult 67:165–172CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Arencibia AD, Carmona ER, Cornide MT et al (1999) Somaclonal variation in insect-resistant transgenic sugarcane (Saccharum hybrid) plants produced by cell electroporation. Trans Res 8:349–360CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Arnhold-Schmitt B (1993) Rapid changes in amplification and methylation pattern of genomic DNA in cultured carrot root explants (Daucus carota L.) Theor Appl Genet 85:793–800Google Scholar
  12. Bairu MW, Aremu AO, Staden JV (2011) Somaclonal variation in plants: causes and detection methods. Plant Growth Regul 63:147–173CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Bajaj YPS (1990) Somaclonal variation-origin, induction, cryopreservation, and implications in plant breeding. In: Bajaj YPS (ed) Biotechnology in agriculture and forestry II. Somaclonal variation in crop improvement. Springer, Berlin, pp 3–35Google Scholar
  14. Bouharmont J (1994) Application of somaclonal variation and in vitro selection to plant improvement. Acta Hort 355:213–218CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Breiman A, Rotem-Abarbanell D, Karp A et al (1987) Heritable somaclonal variation in wild barley (Hordeum spontaneum). Theor Appl Genet 74:104–112PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  16. Brettell RIS, Dennis ES (1991) Reactivation of a silent Ac following tissue culture is associated with heritable alterations in its methylation pattern. Mol Gen Genet 229:365–372PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  17. Brown DCW, Thorpe TA (1995) Crop improvement through tissue culture. World J Micro Biotech 11:409–415CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Brown PTH, Kyozuka J, Sukekiyo Y et al (1990) Molecular changes in protoplast-derived rice plants. Mol Gen Genet 223:324–328PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  19. Brown PTH, Gobel E, Lorz H (1991) RFLP analysis of Zea mays callus cultures and their regenerated plants. Theor Appl Genet 81:227–232PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  20. Bryant JA (1976) The cell cycle. In: Bryant JA (ed) Molecular aspect of gene expression in plants. Academic Press, New York, pp 117–216Google Scholar
  21. Burner DM, Grisham MP (1994) Induction and stability of phenotypic variation in sugarcane as affected by propagation procedure. Crop Sci 35:875–880CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Butterfield MK, D’Hont A, Berding N (2001) The sugarcane genome: a synthesis of current understanding and lessons for breeding and biotechnology. Proc S Afr Sug Technol Ass 75:1–5Google Scholar
  23. Cassells AC, Curry RF (2001) Oxidative stress and physiological, epigenetic and genetic variability in plant tissue culture: implications for micropropagators and genetic engineers. Plant Cell Tissue Organ Cult 64:145–157CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Chen WH, Chen TM, Fu YM et al (1998) Studies on somaclonal variation in Phalaenopsis. Plant Cell Rep 18:7–13CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Chourey PS, Kemble RJ (1982) Transposition events in tissue cultured cells of maize. In: 5th Int Congr Plant Tissue Cell Culture, Tokyo, pp 425–426Google Scholar
  26. Coggins LW, O’Prey M (1989) DNA tertiary structures formed in vitro by misaligned hybridization of multiple tandem repeat sequences. Nucleic Acids Res 17:7417–7426PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Constantin MJ (1984) Potential of in vitro mutation breeding for improvement of vegetatively propagated crop plants. In: Induced mutation for crop improvement in Latin America, Proceedings FAO/IAEA, Vienna, pp 305:59–78Google Scholar
  28. Cooper C, Crowther T, Smith BM et al (2006) Assessment of the response of carrot somaclones to Pythium violae, causal agent of cavity spot. Plant Pathol 55:427–432CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Currais L, Loureiro J, Santos C, Canhoto JM (2013) Ploidy stability in embryogenic cultures and regenerated plantlets of tamarillo. Plant Cell Tissue Organ Cult 114:149–159CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Czene M, Harms-Ringdahl M (1995) Detection of single-strand breaks and formamidopyrimidine-DNA glycosylase-sensitive sites in DNA of cultured human fibroblasts. Mutat Res 336:235–242PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  31. D’Amato F (1977) Cytogenetics of differentiation in tissue and cell culture. In: Reinert J, Bajaj YPS (eds) Applied and fundamental aspects of plant cell, tissue and organ culture. Springer, New York, pp 343–464Google Scholar
  32. Dalvi SG, Vasekar VC, Yadav A et al (2012) Screening of promising sugarcane somaclones for agronomic traits, and smut resistance using PCR amplification of inter transcribed region (ITS) of Sporisorium scitamineum. Sugar Tech 14:68–75CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Daub ME (1986) Tissue culture and the selection of resistance to pathogens. Annu Rev Phytopathol 24:159–186CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Dhumale DB, Ingole GL, Durge DV (1994) Variation for morphological and quality attributes in clones of callus regenerants in sugarcane cv. COC-671. Indian J Genet Pl Br 54:317–320Google Scholar
  35. Dolezel J, Bartos JAN (2005) Plant DNA flow cytometry and estimation of nuclear genome size. Ann Bot 95:99–110PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Dolezel J, Valarik M, Vrana J et al (2004) Molecular cytogenetics and cytometry of bananas (Musa spp). In: Jain SM, Swennen R (eds) Banana improvement: cellular, molecular biology, and induced mutations. Science Publishers, Inc, Enfield, pp 229–244Google Scholar
  37. Doule RB (2006) Cane yield and quality characters of some promising somaclonal variants of sugarcane. Sugar Tech 8:191–193CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Doule RB, Kawar PG, Devarumath RM et al (2008) Field performance and RAPD analysis for assessment of genetic variation in sugarcane somaclones. Indian J Gen 68:301–306Google Scholar
  39. Duncan RR (1997) Tissue culture-induced variation and crop improvement. Adv Agron 58:201–240CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Duncan DR, Widholm JM (1990) Measurements of viability suitable for plant tissue cultures. In: Pollard JW (ed) Plant cell and tissue culture. Humana Press, Clifton, pp 29–37CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Eftekhari M, Alizadeh M, Mashayekhi K et al (2012) In vitro propagation of four Iranian grape varieties: influence of genotype and pretreatment with arbuscular mycorrhiza. Vitis 51:175–182Google Scholar
  42. El-Geddawy DIH, Azzam CR, Khalil SM (2008) Somaclonal variation in sugarcane through tissue culture and subsequent screening for molecular polymorphisms. Egypt J Genet Cytol 37:335–358Google Scholar
  43. Evans DA, Sharp WR (1983) Single gene mutations in tomato plants regenerated from tissue culture. Science 221:949–951PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  44. Evans DA, Sharp WR, Medina-Filho HP (1984) Somaclonal and gametoclonal variation. Am J Bot 71:759–774CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Fahmy FG (1990) Sugarcane subclones resistant to mosaic virus (MV) from callus tissue culture. Assiut J Agric Sci 21:59–73Google Scholar
  46. Fluminhan A, Kameya T (1996) Behaviour of chromosomes in anaphase cells in embryogenic callus cultures of maize (Zea mays L.) Theor Appl Genet 92:982–990PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  47. Freeling M (1984) Plant transposable elements and insertion sequences. Ann Rev Plant Physiol 35:277–298CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Gandonou CB, Errabii T, Abrini J et al (2006) Selection of callus cultures of sugarcane (Saccharum sp.) tolerant to NaCl and their response to salt stress. Plant Cell Tissue Organ Cult 87:9–16CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Gavazzi G, Tonelli C, Todesco G et al (1987) Somaclonal variation versus chemically induced mutagenesis in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.) Theor Appl Genet 74:733–738PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  50. Gengenbach BG, Green CE, Donovan CM (1977) Inheritance of selected pathotoxin resistance in maize plants regenerated from cell cultures. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 74:5113–5117PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. George L, Rao P (1983) Yellow-seeded variants in in vitro regenerants of mustard (Brassica juncea Coss var. Rai-5). Plant Sci Lett 30:327–330CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Gimenez C, de Garcia E, de Enrech NX et al (2001) Somaclonal variation in banana: cytogenetic and molecular characterization of the somaclonal variant CIEN BTA-03. In Vitro Cell Dev Biol Plant 37:217–222CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Groose RW, Bingham ET (1984) Variation in plants regenerated from tissue culture of tetraploid alfalfa heterozygous for several traits. Crop Sci 24:655–658CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Hartmann HT, Kester DE (1983) Plant propagation principles and practices, 4th edn. Prentice-Hall Inc., Englewood Cliffs. 727 ppGoogle Scholar
  55. Heinz DJ (1973) Sugarcane improvement through induced mutations using vegetative propagules and cell culture techniques. In: Induced mutations in vegetatively propagated plants, Proceedings of a panel, International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna, pp 53–59Google Scholar
  56. Heinz DJ, Mee GWP (1970) Colchicine-induced polyploids from cell suspension cultures of sugarcane. Crop Sci 10:696–699CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Heinz DJ, Mee GWP (1971) Morphologic, cytogenetic, and enzymatic variation in Saccharum species hybrid clones derived from callus tissue. Am J Bot 58:257–262CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Heinz DJ, Mee GWP, Nickell LG (1969) Chromosome numbers of some Saccharum species hybrids and their cell suspension cultures. Am J Bot 56:450–456CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Heinz DJ, Krishnamurthi M, Nickell LG et al (1977) Cell, tissue and organ culture in sugarcane improvement. In: Reinert J, Bajaj YPS (eds) Applied and fundamental aspects of plant cell, tissue and organ culture. Spinger, Berlin Heidelberg/New York, pp 3–17Google Scholar
  60. Hirochika H, Sugimoto K, Otsuki Y et al (1996) Retrotransposons of rice involved in mutations induced by tissue culture. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 93:7783–7788PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Hoy JW, Bischoff KP, Milligan SB et al (2003) Effect of tissue culture explant source on sugarcane yield components. Euphytica 129:237–240CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Israeli Y, Reuveni O, Lahav E (1991) Qualitative aspects of somaclonal variations in banana propagated by in vitro techniques. Sci Hort 48:71–88CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Jackson PA (2005) Breeding for improved sugar content in sugarcane. Field Crops Res 92:277–290CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Jackson JA, Lyndon RF (1990) Habituation: Cultural curiosity or developmental determinant? Physiol Planta 79:579–583CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Jalaja NC, Sreenivasan TV, Pawar SM et al (2006) Co 94012 – a new sugarcane variety through somaclonal variation. Sugar Tech 8:132–136CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. James G (2004) Sugarcane. Blackwell Publishing, Oxford, p 214CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Jones H, Karp A, Jones MGK (1989) Isolation, culture and regeneration of plants from potato tuber protoplasts. Plant Cell Rep 8:307–311PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  68. Kaeppler S, Phillips R (1993) DNA methylation and tissue culture induced variation in plants. In Vitro Cell Dev Biol Plant 29:125–130CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Kaeppler SM, Kaeppler HF, Rhee Y (2000) Epigenetic aspects of somaclonal variation in plants. Plant Mol Biol 43:179–188CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Karp A (1992) The role of growth regulators in somaclonal variation. Br Soc Plant Growth Regul Ann Bull 2:1–9Google Scholar
  71. Karp A (1993) Mechanisms of somaclonal variation. Biotechnol Biotec Eq 7:20–25CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Karp A (1994) Origins, causes and uses of variation in plant tissue cultures. In: Vasil IK, Thorpe TA (eds) Plant cell and tissue culture. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, pp 139–152Google Scholar
  73. Karp A (1995) Somaclonal variation as a tool for crop improvement. Euphytica 85:295–302CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Karp A, Wu QS, Steele SH et al (1987) Chromosome variation in dividing protoplasts and cell suspensions of wheat. Theor Appl Genet 74:140–146PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  75. Kaur A, Gosal SS (2009) Optimization of gamma radiation dose for induction of genetic variation in sugarcane (Saccharum spp) callus and regenerated shoot cultures. J Plant Biochem Biotechnol 18:117–120CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Kaur A, Gosal SS, Gill R et al (2001) Induction of plant regeneration and somaclonal variation for some agronomic traits in sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.) Crop Improv 28:167–172Google Scholar
  77. Kenganal M, Hanchinal RR, Nadaf HL (2008) Ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS) induced mutation and selection for salt tolerance in sugarcane in vitro. Indian J Plant Physiol 13:405–410Google Scholar
  78. Khan IA, Khatri A, Ahmad M et al (1998) In vitro mutagenesis in sugarcane. Pak J Bot 30:253–261Google Scholar
  79. Khan SJ, Khan HU, Khan RD et al (2000) Development of sugarcane mutants through in vitro mutagenesis. Pak J Biol Sci 3:1123–1125CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Khan SJ, Khan MA, Ahmed HK (2004) Somaclonal variation in sugarcane through tissue culture and subsequent screening for salt tolerance. Asian J Plant Sci 3:330–334CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Khan IA, Dahot MU, Seema N et al (2009) Variability in sugarcane plantlets developed through in vitro mutagenesis. Pak J Bot 41:153–166Google Scholar
  82. Koch AC, Ramgareeb S, Snyman SJ et al (2010) An in vitro induced mutagenesis protocol for the production of sugarcane tolerant to imidazolinone herbicides. Proc Int Soc Sugar Cane Technol 27:1–5Google Scholar
  83. Krikorian AD, Irizarry H, Cronauer-Mitra SS et al (1993) Clonal fidelity and variation in plantain (Musa AAB) regenerated from vegetative stem and floral axis tips in vitro. Ann Bot 71:519–535CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Krishna H, Singh D (2013) Micropropagation of lasora (Cordia myxa Roxb.) Indian J Hortic 70:323–327Google Scholar
  85. Krishna H, Sairam RK, Singh SK et al (2008) Mango explants browning: effect of ontogenic age: mycorrhization and pre-treatments. Sci Hortic 118:132–138CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Krishna H, Alizadeh M, Singh D et al (2016) Somaclonal variations and their applications in horticultural crops improvement. 3 Biotech 6:54PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Krishnamurthi M, Tlaskal J (1974) Fiji disease resistant Saccharum officinarum var. Pindar sub-clones from tissue cultures. Proc Int Soc Sugar Cane Technol 15:130–137Google Scholar
  88. Kumar P, Agarwal A, Tiwari AK et al (2012) Possibilities of development of red rot resistance in sugarcane through somaclonal variation. Sugar Tech 14:192–194CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Lakshmanan P, Geijskes RJ, Aitken KS et al (2005) Sugarcane biotechnology: the challenges and opportunities. In Vitro Cell Dev Biol Plant 41:345–363CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Larkin PJ (1985) Case histories of genetic variability in vitro: wheat and triticale. In: Vasil IK (ed) Cell culture and somatic cell genetics in plants, vol 3, plant regeneration and genetic variability. Academic Press, Orlando, pp 367–383Google Scholar
  91. Larkin PJ, Scowcroft WR (1981) Somaclonal variation – a novel source of variability from cell culture for plant improvement. Theor Appl Genet 60:197–214PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Larkin PJ, Scowcroft WR (1983) Somaclonal variation and eyespot toxin tolerance in sugarcane. Plant Cell Tissue Organ Cult 2:111–121CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Larkin PJ, Ryan SA, Brettell RIS et al (1984) Heritable somaclonal variation in wheat. Theor Appl Genet 67:443–455PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  94. Laurens AG, Martin FA (1986) Evaluation of in vitro propagated sugarcane hybrids for somaclonal variation. Crop Sci 27:793–796CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Lee M, Phillips RL (1988) The chromosomal basis of somaclonal variation. Annu Rev Plant Physiol Plant Mol Biol 39:413–437CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Letham D, Gollnow B (1985) Regulators of cell division in plant tissues. XXX. Cytokinin metabolism in relation to radish cotyledon expansion and senescence. J Plant Growth Regul 4:129–145CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Liu MC, Chen WH (1976) Tissue and cell culture as aids to sugarcane breeding. I. Creation of genetic variation through callus culture. Euphytica 25:393–402CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Liu MC, Chen WH (1978) Tissue and cell culture as aids to sugarcane breeding. II. Performance and yield potential of callus derived lines. Euphytica 27:273–282CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Liu MC, Chen WH (1981) Sugarcane breeding by the use of cell culture techniques. Proc Pl Breeding Symp, SABRAO, Taichung, Taiwan, pp 189–199Google Scholar
  100. Liu LJ, Marquez ER, Biascoechea ML (1983) Variation in degree of rust resistance among plantlets derived from callus cultures of sugarcane in Puerto Rico. Phytopathology 73:797Google Scholar
  101. Liu MC, Yeh HS, Chen WH (1984) A high sucrose and vigorously growing calliclone 71-4829. Rep Taiwan Sugar Res Inst 102:1–11Google Scholar
  102. Lorz H, Scowcroft WR (1983) Variability among plants and their progeny regenerated from protoplasts of Su/su heterozygotes of Nicotiana tabaccum. Theor Appl Genet 66:67–75PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  103. Lorz H, Gobel E, Brown P (1988) Advances in tissue culture and progress towards genetic transformation of cereals. Plant Breed 100:1–25CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. LoSchiavo F, Pitto L, Giuliano G et al (1989) DNA methylation of embryogenic carrot cell cultures and its variations as caused by mutation, differentiation, hormones and hypomethylating drugs. Theor Appl Genet 77:325–331PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  105. Mahmud K, Nasiruddin KM, Hossain MA et al (2015a) Screening sugarcane somaclones and their parent varieties against red rot (Colletotrichum falcatum) and assessment of variability by RAPD and SSR markers. SAARC J Agric 13:173–182CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Mahmud K, Nasiruddin KM, Hossain MA et al (2015b) Characterization of induced sugarcane somaclones and their sources varieties using random amplified polymorphic DNA. Plant Tissue Cult & Biotech 25:223–229CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Mahmud K, Nasiruddin KM, Hossain MA et al (2016) Development of mutants in sugarcane through callus culture. Plant Tiss Cult Biotech 26:123–130CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Maluszynski M, Ahloowalia BS, Sigurbjörnsson B (1995) Application of in vivo and in vitro mutation techniques for crop improvement. Euphytica 85:303–315CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Manchanda P, Gosal SS (2012) Effect of activated charcoal, carbon sources and gelling agents on direct somatic embryogenesis and regeneration in sugarcane via leaf roll segments. Sugar Tech 14:168–173CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Maretzki A (1987) Tissue culture: its prospects and problems. In: Heinz DJ (ed) Sugarcane improvement through breeding. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 343–384CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Mascarenhas AF (1991) Hand book of plant tissue culture. ICAR Publications, New DelhiGoogle Scholar
  112. McClintock B (1984) The significance of responses of the genome to challenge. Science 226:792–801PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  113. Micke A, Donani B, Maluszynski M (1990) Induced mutations for crop improvement. Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture, International Atomic Energy Agency, ViennaGoogle Scholar
  114. Miguel C, Marum L (2011) An epigenetic view of plant cells cultured in vitro: somaclonal variation and beyond. J Exp Bot 62:3713–3725PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  115. Mohamed MAH, Harris PJC, Henderson J (2000) In vitro selection and characterisation of a drought tolerant clone of Tagetes minuta. Plant Sci 159:213–222PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  116. Mohanty S, Panda M, Subudhi E et al (2008) Plant regeneration from callus culture of Curcuma aromatica and in vitro detection of somaclonal variation through cytophotometric analysis. Biol Plant 52:783–786CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Moore PP, Robbins JA, Sjulin JM (1991) Field performance of ‘Olympus’ strawberry subclones. Hort Sci 26:192–194Google Scholar
  118. Muller E, Brown PTH, Hartke S et al (1990) DNA variation in tissue-culture-derived rice plants. Theor Appl Genet 80:673–679PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  119. Nagai C, Ahloowalia BS, Jheinz D et al (1986) Colchicine-induced aneuploids from cell culture of sugarcane. Euphytica 35:1029–1038CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Nagai C, Ahloowalia BS, Tew TL (1991) Somaclonal variants from an intergeneric hybrid: Saccharum spp. hybrid x Erianthus arundinaceum. Euphytica 53:193–199CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Nehra NS, Kartha KK, Stushnoff C et al (1992) The influence of plant growth regulator concentrations and callus age on somaclonal variation in callus culture regenerants of strawberry. Plant Cell Tissue Organ Cult 29:257–268CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Nickell LG (1964) Tissue and cell culture of sugarcane – another research tool. Hawaii Plant Rec 57:223–229Google Scholar
  123. Nikam AA, Devarumath RM, Ahuja A et al (2015) Radiation-induced in vitro mutagenesis system for salt tolerance and other agronomic characters in sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.) The Crop J 3:46–56CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Novak EJ (1991) In vitro mutation system for crop improvement. In: Plant mutation breeding for crop improvement, vol 2. IAEA, Vienna, pp 327–342Google Scholar
  125. Nwauzoma AB, Jaja ET (2013) A review of somaclonal variation in plantain (Musa spp): mechanisms and applications. J Appl Biosci 67:5252–5260CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Oloriz MI, Gil V, Rojas L et al (2011) Selection and characterisation of sugarcane mutants with improved resistance to brown rust obtained by induced mutation. Crop Pasture Sci 62:1037–1044CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Oropeza M, Guevara P, de García E et al (1995) Identification of somaclonal variants of sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) resistant to sugarcane mosaic virus via RAPD markers. Plant Mol Biol Rep 13:182–191CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Pandey RN, Singh SP, Rastogi J et al (2012) Early assessment of genetic fidelity in sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum) plantlets regenerated through direct organogenesis with RAPD and SSR markers. Aust J Crop Sci 6:618–624Google Scholar
  129. Patade VY, Suprasanna P (2009) An in vitro radiation induced mutagenesis-selection system for salinity tolerance in sugarcane. Sugar Tech 11:246CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Patade VY, Suprasanna P, Bapat VA et al (2006) Selection for abiotic (salinity and drought) stress tolerance and molecular characterization of tolerant lines in sugarcane. BARC News Lett 27:244–257Google Scholar
  131. Patade VY, Suprasanna P, Bapat VA (2008) Gamma irradiation of embryogenic callus cultures and in vitro selection for salt tolerance in sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.) Agric Sci China 7:1147–1152CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Peros JP, Bonnel E, Roques D et al (1994) Effect of in vitro culture on rust resistance and yield in sugarcane. Field Crops Res 37:113–119CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Peschke VM, Phillips RL (1992) Genetic implications of somaclonal variation in plants. Adv Genet 30:41–75Google Scholar
  134. Phillips RL, Kaeppler SM, Olhoft P (1994) Genetic instability of plant tissue cultures: breakdown of normal controls. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 91:5222–5226PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Poehlman JM, Sleper DA (1995) Breeding field crops. Panima Publishing Corporation, New DelhiGoogle Scholar
  136. Predieri S (2001) Mutation induction and tissue culture in improving fruits. Plant Cell Tissue Organ Cult 64:185–210CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Purnamaningsih R, Hutami S (2016) Increasing Al-tolerance of sugarcane using ethyl methane sulphonate and in vitro selection in the low pH media. HAYATI J Biosci 23:1–6CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Purohit M, Srivastava S, Srivastava PS (1998) Stress tolerant plants through tissue culture. In: Srivastava PS (ed) Plant tissue culture and molecular biology: application and prospects. Narosa Publishing House, New Delhi, pp 554–578Google Scholar
  139. Rai MK, Kalia RK, Singh R et al (2011) Developing stress tolerant plants through in vitro selection – an overview of the recent progress. Environ Exp Bot 71:89–98CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Rajeswari S, Thirugnanakumar S, Anandan A et al (2009) Somaclonal variation in sugarcane through tissue culture and evaluation for quantitative and quality traits. Euphytica 168:71–80CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. Ramos Leal MA, Maribona RH, Ruiz A et al (1996) Somaclonal variation as a source of resistance to eyespot disease of sugarcane. Plant Breed 115:37–42CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. Rani V, Raina S (2000) Genetic fidelity of organized meristem-derived micropropagated plants: a critical reappraisal. In Vitro Cell Dev Biol Plant 36:319–330CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. Ravindra NS, Ramesh SI, Gupta MK et al (2012) Evaluation of somaclonal variation for genetic improvement of patchouli (Pogostemon patchouli), an exclusively vegetatively propagated aromatic plant. J Crop Sci Biotechnol 15:33–39CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. Raza S, Qamarunnisa S, Jamil I et al (2014) Screening of sugarcane somaclones of variety BL4 for agronomic characteristics. Pak J Bot 46:1531–1535Google Scholar
  145. Reisch B, Stanley HD, Bingham ET (1981) Selection and characterization of ethionine resistant alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) cell lines. Theor Appl Genet 59:89–94PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  146. Rodriguez AJ, Perez A, Martin AM (1984) Adaptation to environmental conditions and characterization of sugarcane plants obtained by tissue culture. In: Novak FJ, Havel L, Dolezel J (eds) Plant tissue and cell culture application to crop improvement. Czechoslovakia Academy of Sciences, Prague, Czechoslovakia, pp 283–284Google Scholar
  147. Rodriguez PHV, Tulmann Neto A, Cassieri Neto P et al (1998) Influence of the number of subcultures on somaclonal variation in micropropagated Nanico (Musa spp., AAA group). Acta Hortic 490:469–473CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. Sahijram L, Soneji J, Bollamma K (2003) Analyzing somaclonal variation in micropropagated bananas (Musa spp.) In Vitro Cell Dev Biol Plant 39:551–556CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. Samad MA, Begum S, Majid MA (2001) Somaclonal variation and irradiation in sugarcane calli for selection against red rot, waterlogged conditions and delayed or non-flowering characters. IAEA-TECDOC 1227:45–50Google Scholar
  150. Saravanan S, Sarvesan R, Vinod MS (2011) Identification of DNA elements involved in somaclonal variants of Rauvolfia serpentina (L.) arising from indirect organogenesis as evaluated by ISSR analysis. Indian J Sci Technol 4:1241–1245Google Scholar
  151. Scowcroft WR (1985) Somaclonal variation: the myth of clonal uniformity. In: Hohn B, Dennis ES (eds) Genetic flux in plants. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg/New York, pp 217–245CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. Secor GA, Shepard JF (1981) Variability of protoplast derived potato clones. Crop Sci 21:102–105CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. Seema N, Khan IA, Raza S et al (2014) Assessment of genetic variability in somaclonal variation in sugarcane. Pak J Bot 46:2107–2111Google Scholar
  154. Selker EU, Stevens JN (1985) DNA methylation at asymmetric sites is associated with numerous transition mutations. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 82:8114–8118PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. Selman-Housein G, Lopez MA, Ramos O et al (2000) Towards the improvement of sugarcane bagasse as raw material for the production of paper pulp and animal feed. Dev Plant Genet Breed 5:189–193Google Scholar
  156. Sengar A, Thind K, Kumar B et al (2009) In vitro selection at cellular level for red rot resistance in sugarcane (Saccharum sp.) Plant Growth Regul 58:201–209CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. Shahid MT, Khan FA, Saeed A et al (2011) Variability of red rot-resistant somaclones of sugarcane genotype S97US297 assessed by RAPD and SSR. Genet Mol Res 10:1831–1849PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  158. Shahid MTH, Khan FA, Saeed A (2012) Development of somaclones in sugarcane genotype BF-162 and assessment of variability by random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and simple sequence repeats (SSR) markers in selected red rot resistant somaclones. Afr J Biotech 11:3502–3513Google Scholar
  159. Shepard JF, Bidney D, Shahin E (1980) Potato protoplasts in crop improvement. Science 208:17–24PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  160. Shepherd K, Dos Santos JA (1996) Mitotic instability in banana varieties. I. Plants from callus and shoot tip cultures. Fruits 51:5–11Google Scholar
  161. Shomeili M, Nabipour M, Meskarbashee M et al (2011) Evaluation of sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.) somaclonals tolerance to salinity via in vitro and in vivo. HAYATI J Biosci 18:91–96CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. Sibi M (1976) La notion de programme genétique chez les vegetaux superieurs II. Aspect experimental: Obtention de variants par culture de tissus in vitro sur Lactuca sativa L. Apparition de vigueur chez les croisements. Annl’Amelior Plantes 26:523–547Google Scholar
  163. Singh A, Lai M, Singh MP et al (2000) Variations for red rot resistance in somaclones of sugarcane. Sugar Tech 2:56–58CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. Singh G, Sandhu S, Meeta M et al (2008) In vitro induction and characterization of somaclonal variation for red rot and other agronomic traits in sugarcane. Euphytica 160:35–47CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. Skirvin RM (1978) Natural and induced variation in tissue culture. Euphytica 27:241–266CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  166. Skirvin RM, Janick J (1976) Tissue culture-induced variation in scented Pelargonium spp. J Amer Soc Hort Sci 101:281–290Google Scholar
  167. Smith MK, Drew RA (1990) Current applications of tissue culture in plant propagation and improvement. Aust J Plant Physiol 17:267–289CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. Sobhakumari VP (2012) Assessment of somaclonal variation in sugarcane. Afr J Biotech 11:15303–15309Google Scholar
  169. Sreenivasan TV, Jalaja NC (1981) Sugarcane varietal improvement through tissue culture. Proc Symp Pl Cell Culture in Crop Improv, Bose Institute, CalcuttaGoogle Scholar
  170. Sreenivasan J, Sreenivasan TV (1984a) In vitro propagation of Saccharum officinarum (L.) and Sclerostachya fusca (Roxb.) A. Camus hybrid. Theor Appl Genet 67:171–174PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  171. Sreenivasan J, Sreenivasan TV (1984b) Tissue culture of species and species hybrids for creating genetic variability. Annual Report, Sugarcane Breeding Institute, Coimbatore, pp 61–62Google Scholar
  172. Sreenivasan J, Sreenivasan TV, Alexander KC (1987a) Somaclonal variation for rust resistance in sugarcane. Indian J Genet 472:109–114Google Scholar
  173. Sreenivasan J, Sreenivasan TV, Alexander KC et al (1987b) Somaclonal variation for smut disease (Ustilago scitaminea Syd.) resistance in sugarcane. In: Reddy GM (ed) Proc symp plant cell and tissue culture of economically important plants, Hyderabad, pp 259–264Google Scholar
  174. Srinivasan C, Vasil IK (1985) Callus formation and plantlet regeneration from sugarcane protoplasts isolated from embryogenic cell suspension cultures. Am J Bot 72:833Google Scholar
  175. Sun Z, Zhao C, Zheng K et al (1983) Somaclonal genetics of rice, Oryza sativa L. Theor Appl Genet 67:67–73CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  176. Suprasanna P, Rupali C, Desai NS et al (2008) Partial desiccation augments plant regeneration from irradiated embryogenic cultures of sugarcane. Plant Cell Tissue Organ Cult 92:101CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  177. Tal M (1994) In vitro selection for salt tolerance in crop plants: theoretical and practical considerations. In Vitro Cell Dev Biol Plant 30:175–180CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  178. Tanurdzic M, Vaughn MW, Jiang H et al (2008) Epigenomic consequences of immortalized plant cell suspension culture. PLoS Biol 6:2880–2895PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  179. Tawar PN, Sawant RA, Dalvi SG et al (2008) An assessment of somaclonal variation in micropropagated plants of sugarcane by RAPD markers. Sugar Tech 10:124CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  180. Tawar PN, Sawant RA, Sushir KV et al (2016) VSI 434: new sugarcane variety obtained through somaclonal variation. Agric Res 5:127CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  181. Taylor PWJ, Geijskes JR, Ko HL et al (1995) Sensitivity of random amplified polymorphic DNA analysis to detect genetic change in sugarcane during tissue culture. Theor Appl Genet 90:1169–1173PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  182. Tiwari JK, Chandel P, Gupta S et al (2013) Analysis of genetic stability of in vitro propagated potato microtubers using DNA markers. Physiol Mol Biol Plants 19:587–595PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  183. Vazquez AM (2001) Insight into somaclonal variation. Plant Biosyst 135:57–62CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  184. Wacksman JT (1997) DNA methylation and the association between genetic and epigenetic changes: relation to carcinogenesis. Mutat Res 375:1–8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  185. Wagih ME, Ala A, Musa Y (2004) Regeneration and evaluation of sugarcane somaclonal variants for drought tolerance. Sugar Tech 6:35–40CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  186. Weising K, Nybom H, Wolff K et al (2005) DNA fingerprinting in plants: principles, methods, and applications. CRC Press, New YorkCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  187. Yadav PV, Suprasanna P, Gopalrao KU et al (2006) Molecular profiling using RAPD technique of salt and drought tolerant regenerants of sugarcane. Sugar Tech 8:63–68CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  188. Yasmin S, Khan IA, Khatri A et al (2011) Plant regeneration from irradiated embryogenic callus of sugarcane. Pak J Bot 43:2423–2426Google Scholar
  189. Yusnita Y, Widodo W, Sudarsono S (2005) In vitro selection of peanut somatic embryos on medium containing culture filtrate of Sclerotium rolfsii and plantlet regeneration. HAYATI J Biosci 12:50–56CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  190. Zambrano AY, Demey JR, Gonzalez V (2003a) In vitro selection of a glyphosate-tolerant sugarcane cellular line. Plant Mol Biol Report 21:365–373CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  191. Zambrano AY, Demey JR, Fuchs M et al (2003b) Selection of sugarcane plants resistant to SCMV. Plant Sci J 165:221–225CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Pooja Manchanda
    • 1
  • Ajinder Kaur
    • 1
  • Satbir Singh Gosal
    • 2
  1. 1.School of Agricultural Biotechnology, Punjab Agricultural UniversityLudhianaIndia
  2. 2.Punjab Agricultural UniversityLudhianaIndia

Personalised recommendations