Advertisement

In Vitro Propagation of Important Rootstocks of Apple for Rapid Cloning and Improvement

  • Amanpreet Kaur
  • Davinder Singh
  • Varsha
  • Nidhi Gupta
  • Anil Kumar
Chapter

Abstract

Micropropagation of apple rootstocks has played an indispensable role in cloning and multiplication of cultivars possessing desired characters such as early maturity, shortened height, etc. It has further added to a dimension of research in apple by providing season-independent multiplication of disease-free rootstocks. Subsequently many studies were conducted to optimize in vitro propagation of selected apple rootstocks with the aim of rapid cloning of disease-free planting material for grafting and also to undertake trait-specific modifications of selected rootstocks to enhance their potential. Work has also been conducted for development of regeneration protocol through shoot organogenesis and somatic embryogenesis. Some studies on development of genetic transformation protocols of selected rootstocks and modification of some important traits has also been reviewed in this article.

Keywords

Micropropagation Shoot organogenesis Somatic embryogenesis Genetic transformation 

References

  1. Abbott AJ, Whiteley E (1976) Culture of Malus tissues in vitro I. Multiplication of apple plants from isolated shoot apices. Sci Hortic 4:183–189CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Abdul-Kader AM, Mathe A, Laszloffy K (1991) Aspects of the in vitro technology of apple (Malus sp.) Acta Agron Hung 40:237–251Google Scholar
  3. Akin-Idowu PE, Ibitoye DO, Ademoyegun OT (2009) Tissue culture as a plant production technique for horticultural crops. Afr J Biotechnol 8:3782–3788Google Scholar
  4. Alvarez R, Nissen SJ, Sutter EG (1989) Relationship between Indole-3-acetic acid levels in apple (Malus pumila mill) rootstocks cultured in vitro and adventitious root formation in the presence of lndole-3-butyric acid. Plant Physiol 89:439–443PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Amiri EM, Elahinia A (2011) Optimization of medium composition for apple rootstocks. Afr J Biotechnol 10:3594–3601Google Scholar
  6. Arias M, Carbonell J, Agusti M (2005) Endogenous free polyamines and their role in fruit set of low and high parthenocarpic ability citrus cultivars. J Plant Physiol 162:845–853PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  7. Babbar SB, Jain R, Walia N (2005) Guar gum as a gelling agent for plant tissue culture media. In: In Vitro Cell Dev Biol Plant, vol 41, pp 258–261Google Scholar
  8. Bahmani R, Karami O, Gholami M (2009a) Influence of carbon sources and their concentrations on rooting and hyperhydricity of apple rootstock MM.106. World Appl Sci J 6:1513–1517Google Scholar
  9. Bahmani R, Karami O, Gholami M (2009b) The effect of carbon source and concentration on in vitro shoot proliferation of MM.106 apple rootstock. Fruit veg cereal Sci. Biotech 3:35–37Google Scholar
  10. Bahmani R, Gholami M, Mozafari AA, Alivaisi R (2012) Effect of salinity on in vitro shoot proliferation and rooting of apple rootstock MM.106. World Appl Sci J 17:292–295Google Scholar
  11. Baraldi R, Fasolo Fabbri Malavasi F, Predieri S, Castagneto M (1991) Effect of potassium humate on apple cv. ‘Golden delicious’ cultured in vitro. Plant Cell Tissue Org Cult 24:187–191CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bartish IV, Korkhovoi VI (1997) The composition of nutrient medium and the efficiency of shoot induction in vitro from apple leaf explants. Russ J Plant Physiol 44:381–385Google Scholar
  13. Belfanti E, Dilworth ES, Tartarini S, Patocchi A, Barbieri M, Zhu J, Vinatzer BA, Gianfranceschi L, Gessler C, Sansavini S (2003) The HcrVf2 gene from a wild apple confers scab resistance to a transgenic cultivated variety. PNAS 101:886–890CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Bhatt A, Kansal S, Chauhan RS, Sood H (2012) Low cost tissue culture procedures for micropropagation of apple rootstocks. International journal of plant. Dev Biol 6:67–72Google Scholar
  15. Biedermann IEC (1987) Factors affecting establishment and development of Magnolia hybrids in vitro. Acta Hortic 212:625–629CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Block R, Lankes C (1996) Massnahmen gegen die Verbräunung bei der in-vitro-Etablierung der Apfelunterlage M9. Gartenbauwissenschaft 61:11–17Google Scholar
  17. Bolar JP, Norelli JL, Aldwinckle HS (1998) An efficient method for rooting and acclimation of micropropagated apple cultivars. Hortscience 33:1251–1252Google Scholar
  18. Bommineni VR, Mathews H, Samuel SB, Kramer M, Wagner DR (2001) A new method for rapid in vitro propagation of apple and pear. Hortscience 36:1102–1106Google Scholar
  19. Boudabous M, Mars M, Marzougui N, Ferchichi A (2010) Micropropagation of apple (Malus domestica L. cultivar Douce de Djerba) through in vitro culture of axillary buds. Acta Bot Gallica 157:513–524CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Bulgakov VP (2008) Functions of rol genes in plant secondary metabolism. Biotechnol Adv 26:318–324PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  21. Camargo JT, Fortes GR, Silva JB, Centellas AQ, Oliveira MF (1998) Evaluation of BAP concentrations for callogenesis/organogenesis in apical and basal internodes of the apple rootstock cv. Marubakaido (Malus prunifolia). Agropecu Clima Temperado 1:129–136Google Scholar
  22. Chakrabarty D, Hahn EJ, Yoon YJ, Paek KY (2003) Micropropagation of apple rootstock M.9 EMLA using bioreactor. J Hortic Sci Biotechnol 78:605–609CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Cheng TY (1978) Propagating woody plants through tissue culture. Am Nurserym 15:7–14Google Scholar
  24. Cheng M, Hu T, Layton J, Liu CN, Fry JE (2003) Desiccation of plant tissues post-Agrobacterium infection enhances T-DNA delivery and increases stable transformation efficiency in wheat. In Vitro Cell Dev Biol Plant 39(6):594–604CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Chong C, Taper CD (1972) Malus tissue cultures. I. Sorbitol (Dglucitol) as a carbon source for callus initiation and growth. Can J Bot 50:1399–1404CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Ciccoti AM, Bisognin C, Battocletti I, Salvadori A, Herdemertens M, Jarausch W (2008) Micropropagation of apple proliferation-resistant apomictic Malus sieboldii genotypes. Agron Res 6:445–458Google Scholar
  27. Ciccotti AM, Bisognin C, Battocletti I, Salvadori A, Herdemertens M, Wallbraun M, Jarausch W (2009) Micropropagation of Malus sieboldii hybrids resistant to apple proliferation disease. Acta Hortic 839:35–42CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Custodio L, Loucao MA, Romano A (2004) Influence of sugars on in vitro rooting and acclimatization of carob tree. Biol Plant 48(3):469–472CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Dalal MA, Das B, Sharma AK, Mir MA, Sounduri AS (2006) In vitro cloning of apple (Malus domestica Borkh) employing forced shoot tip cultures of M9 rootstock. IJBT 5:543–550Google Scholar
  30. Damiano C, Monticelli S, La Starza SR, Gentile A, Frattarelli A (2003). Temperate fruit plant propagation through temporary immersion. XXVI Int Horticul Congress: Biotechnology in Horticultural Crop Improvement: Achievements, Opportunities and Limitations 1(56), ISBN 9066052589, ISSN 0567-7572Google Scholar
  31. De Bondt A, Eggermont K, Druart P, De Vil M, Vanderleyden J, Broekaert WF (1994) Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of apple (Malus x domestica Borkh.): an assessment of factors affecting gene transfer efficiency during early transformation steps. Plant Cell Rep 13:587–593PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. De Bondt A, Eggermont K, Penninckx I, Goderis I, Broekaert WF (1996) Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of apple (Malus x domestica Borkh.): an assessment of factors affecting regeneration of transgenic plants. Plant Cell Rep 15:549–554PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. De klerk GJ, Hanecakova J, Jasik J (2001) The role of cytokinins in rooting of stem slices cut from apple microcuttings. Plant Biosyst 135:79–84CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Degenhardt J, Poppe A, Montag J, Szankowski I (2006) The use of the phosphomannose-isomerase/mannose selection system to recover transgenic apple plants. Plant Cell Rep 25:1149–1156PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  35. Diagny G, Paul H, Sangwan RS, Sangwan-Norreel BS (1996) Factors influencing secondary somatic embryogenesis in Malus x domestica Borkh. (cv ‘Gloster 69’). Plant Cell Rep 16:153–157CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Dobranski J, da Silva JAT (2010) Micropropagation of apple – a review. Biotechnol Adv 28:462–488CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Dobranski J, Hudak I, Tabori K, Benczur EJ, Galli Z, Kiss E (2002) How can different cytokinins influence the process of shoot regeneration from apple leaves in ´Royal Gala´ and ´M.26′. Acta Hortic 725:191–196Google Scholar
  38. Dobranszki J, da Silva JAT (2011) Adventitious shoot regeneration from leaf thin cell layers in apple. Sci Hort 127:460–463CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Dobranszki J, Magyar-Tabori K, Jambor-Benczur E, Lazanyi J (2000) New in vitro micrografting method for apple by sticking. Intl. J Hort Sci 6:79–83Google Scholar
  40. Driver JA, Kuniyuki AH (1984) In vitro propagation of paradox walnut rootstock. Hortic Sci 19:507–509Google Scholar
  41. Druart P (1990) Improvement of somatic embryogenesis of the cherry dwarf rootstock Inmil/GM9 by the use of different carbon sources. Acta Hort 280:125–129CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Dunstan DI, Turner KE, Lazaroff WR (1985) Propagation in vitro of the apple rootstock M4: effect of phytohormones on shoot quality. Plant Cell Tissue Organ Cult 4:55–60CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Endo S, Sugita K, Sakai M, Matsunaga E, Ebinuma H (2001) The isopentyl transferase gene is effective as a selectable marker gene for plant transformation in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum cv. Petite Havana SR1). Plant Cell Rep 20:60–69CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Eudes F, Acharya S, Laroche A, Selinger LB, Cheng (2003) A novel method to induce direct somatic embryogenesis and regeneration of fertile green cereal plants. Plant Cell Tissue Organ Cult 73:147–157CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Evaldson I (1985) Induction, growth and differentiation of callus stem segments of in vitro cultured apple shoots (Malus domestica Borkh). Swed J Agri Res 14:119–122Google Scholar
  46. Fallahi E, Michael Colt W, Fallahi B, Chun IJ (2002) The importance of apple rootstocks on tree growth, yield, fruit quality, leaf nutrition and photosynthesis with an emphasis on ‘Fuji’. Hort. Technology 12:38–44Google Scholar
  47. Famiani F, Ferradini N, Staffolani, Standardi A (1994) Effect of leaf excision time and age, BA concentration and dark treatments on in vitro shoot regeneration of M26 apple rootstock. J Hortic Sci 69:679–685CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. FAOSTAT (2013) www.fao.org/faostat/en/#data/QC/visualizeGoogle Scholar
  49. FAOSTAT (2014) www.fao.org/faostat/en/#data/QCGoogle Scholar
  50. Fasolo F, Zimmerman RH, Fordham I (1989) Adventitious shoot formation on excised leaves of in vitro grown shoots of apple cultivars. Plant Cell Tissue Organ Cult 16:75–87CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Ferradini N, Famiani F, Proietti P, Stanica F (1996) Influence of growth regulators and light on in vitro shoot regeneration in M26 apple rootstock. J HorticSci 71:859–865Google Scholar
  52. Flachowsky H, Szankowski I, Waidmann S, Peil A, Trankner C, Hanke MV (2012) The MdTFL1 gene of apple (Malus × domestica Borkh.) reduces vegetative growth and generation time. Tree Physiol 32:1288–1301PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  53. Fujii T, Nito N (1972) Studies on the compatibility of grafting of fruit trees. Callus fusion between root stock and scion. J Jpn Soc Hortic Sci 41:1–10CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. George EF, Davies W (2008) Effects of the physical environment. In: George EF, Hall MA, De Klerk GJ (eds) Plant propagation by tissue culture, 3rd edn. Springer, Dordrecht, pp 423–464Google Scholar
  55. George EF, Debergh PC (2008) Micropropagation: uses and methods. In: George EF, Hall MA, De Klerk GJ (eds) Plant propagation by tissue culture, 3rd edn. Springer, Dordrecht, pp 29–64Google Scholar
  56. Ghanbari A (2014) Impacts of plant growth regulators and culture media on in vitro propagation of three apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) rootstocks. IJGPB 3(1):11–20Google Scholar
  57. Grant NJ, Hammatt N (1999) Increased shoot and root production during micropropagation of cherry and apple rootstocks: effect of subculture frequency. Tree Physiol 19:899–903PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  58. Greenwood MS, Hutchison KW (1993) Maturation as developmental process. In: Clonal forestry: genetics, biotechnology and application. Springer-Verlag, New York, pp 14–33CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Gupta N (2011) Development of in vitro regeneration protocol for apple rootstock M7 and M9. M.Sc. Thesis, Thapar University PatialaGoogle Scholar
  60. Hackett WP (1985) Juvenility, maturation and rejuvenation in woody plants. Hortic Rev 7:109–115Google Scholar
  61. Hildebrandt V, Harney PM (1988) Factors affecting the release of phenolic exudate from explants of Pelargonium × hortorum, bailey ‘sprinter scarlet. J Hortic Sci 63:651–657CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Holefors A, Xue ZT, Welander M (1998) Transformation of the apple rootstock M26 with the rolA gene and its influence on growth. Plant Sci 136:69–78CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Hutchinson JF (1984) Factors affecting shoot proliferation and root initiation in organ cultures of the apple. Norther spy. Sci Hortic 22:347–358CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Huth W (1978) Kulturvon apfelanzen aus apikalen Meristemen (in German, English summary). Gartenbauwissenschaft 43:163–166Google Scholar
  65. Hyae JJ, WooYB, Hee YM, Hwang JH, Youngllk S (1996) Influence of cultivar, light conditions and pretreatment on adventitious shoot regeneration from leaves, internodes and petioles of Malus domestica Borkh in vitro. J Korean Soc Horticult Sci 37:700–703Google Scholar
  66. Isutsa DK, Pritts MP, Mudge KW (1998) A protocol for rooting and growing apple rootstock microshoots. Fruit Var J 52:107–116Google Scholar
  67. Jaiswal VS, Amin MN (1987) In vitro propagation of guava from shoot cultures of mature trees. J Plant Physiol 130:7–12CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. James DJ, Passey AJ, Rugini E (1984) Organogenesis in callus derived from stems and leaf tissues of apple and cherry rootstocks. Plant Cell Tissue Organ Cult 3:333–341CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. James DJ, Passey AJ, Rugini E (1988) Factors affecting high frequency plant regeneration from apple leaf tissues cultured in vitro. J Plant Physiol 132:149–154CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. James DL, Passey AJ, Barbara DJ, Bevan M (1989) Genetic transformation of apple (Malus pumila mill.) using a disarmed Ti-binary vector. Plant Cell Rep 7(8):658–661PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  71. Jones OP (1967) Effect of benzyladenine on isolated apple shoots. Nature 215:1514–1515PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  72. Karhu ST (1995) The quality of applied carbohydrates affects the axillary branching of apple microshoots. Bull Rech Agron Gembloux 30:21–27Google Scholar
  73. Karhu ST (1997) Sugar use in relation to shoot induction by sorbitol and cytokinin in apple. J Am Soc Hortic Sci 122:476–480Google Scholar
  74. Karhu ST, Zimmerman RH (1993) Effect of light and coumarin during root initiation of rooting apple cultivars in vitro. Adv Hortic Sci 7:33–36Google Scholar
  75. Kaushal N, Modgil M, Thakur M, Sharma DR (2005) In vitro clonal multiplication of an apple rootstock by culture of shoot apices and axillary buds. Indian J Exp Biol 43:561–565PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  76. Keresa S, Bosnjak AM, Baric M, Jercic IH, Sarcevic H, Bisko A (2012) Efficient axillary shoot proliferation and in vitro rooting of apple cv. ‘Topaz’. Not Bot Horti Agrobo 40(1):113–118CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Khilwani B, Kaur A, Ranjan R, Kumar A (2016) Direct somatic embryogenesis and encapsulation of somatic embryos for in vitro conservation of Bacopa monnieri (L.) Wettst. Plant Cell Tissue Organ Cult.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11240-016-1067-5 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Korban SS, Connor PAO, Elobeidy A (1992) Effect of Thidiazuron, nafthalen acetic acid, dark incubation and genotype on shoot organogenesis of Malus leaves. J Hort Sci 67:341–349CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Kovalchuk I, Lyudvikova Y, Volgina M, Reed BM (2009) Medium, container and genotype all influence in vitro cold storage of apple germplasm. Plant Cell Tissue Organ Cult 96:127–136CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Kumar A (1996) Studies on in vitro propagation, biochemistry and field evaluation of two economically important plants: Rosa Damascena Mill. And Gladiolus Spp. Ph.D Thesis, Kumaun University, NanitalGoogle Scholar
  81. Kumar K, Rao IU (2012) Morphophysiologicals problems in acclimatization of micropropagated plants in - ex vitro conditions- a reviews. Journal of ornamental and horticultural. Plants 2(4):271–283Google Scholar
  82. Kumar A, Sood A, Palni LMS, Gupta AK (1999) In vitro propagation of Gladiolus hybridus Hort. synergistic effect of heat shock and sucrose on morphogenesis. Plant Cell, Tissue Org Cult 57:105–112CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Kumar A, Palni LMS, Nandi SK (2003) The effect of light source and gelling agent on micro propagation of Rosa damascena mill. and Rhynchostylis retusa (L.) Bl. J Hortic Sci Biotechnol 78:786–792CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Kumar A, Aggarwal D, Gupta P, Reddy MS (2010) Factors affecting in vitro propagation and field establishment of Chlorophytum borivilianum. Biol Plant 54:601–606CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Lane WD (1978) Regeneration of apple plants from shoot meristem-tips. Plant Sci Lett 13:282–285CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Lane WD, Looney NE (1982) A selective tissue culture medium for growth of compact (dwarf) mutants of apple. Theor Appl Genet 61:219–223PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  87. Lane WD, McDougald JM (1982) Shoot tissue culture of apple: comparative response of five cultivars to cytokinin and auxin. Can J Plant Sci 62:689–694CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Lee CH, Hyung NI, Kim SB (1995) Foreign gene transfer using electroporation and transient expression in apple. Acta Hortic 392:179–185Google Scholar
  89. Leng P, Su S, Wei F, Yi F, Duan Y (2009) Correlation between browning, total phenolic content, polyphenol oxidase and several antioxidation enzymes during pistachio tissue culture. Acta Hortic 829:127–131CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Letham DS (1958) Cultivation of apple fruit tissues in vitro. Nature (London) 182:473–474CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Li RY, Murthy HN, Kim SK, Paek KY (2001) CO2-enrichment and photosynthetic photon flux affect the growth of in vitro-cultured apple plantlets. J Plant Biol 44:87–91CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Linsmayer EM, Skoog F (1965) Organic growth factor requirements of tobacco tissue cultures. Physiol Plant 18:100–127CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Liu JR, Sink KC, Dennis FG (1983) Plant regeneration from apple seedling explants and callus cultures. Plant Cell Tissue Organ Cult 2:293–304CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Liu JH, Nada K, Kurosawa T, Ban Y, Moriguchi T (2009) Potential regulation of apple in vitro shoot growth via modulation of cellular polyamine contents. Sci Hortic 119:423–429CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Lucyszyn N, Quoirin M, Anjos A, Sierakowski MR (2005) Blends of agar/galactomannan for Marubakaido apple rootstock shoot proliferation. Polímeros Ciên Tecnol15 15:146–150CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Magyar Tabori K, Dobransszki J, da Silva JAT, Bulley SM, Hudak I (2010) The role of cytokinins in shoot organogenesis in apple. Plant Cell Tissue Organ Cult 101:252–267CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Magyar-Tabori K, Dobranszki J, Jambor-Benczur E, Lazanyi J (2001) Role of cytokinins in shoot proliferation of apple in vitro. Analele Universitţii din Oradea VII Partea I Fascicula Agricultur Şi Horticultur TOM VII:17–24Google Scholar
  98. Magyar-Tabori K, Dobranszki J, Jambor-Benczur E (2002) High in vitro shoot proliferation in the apple cultivar Jonagold induced by benzyladenine analogues. Acta Agron Hung 50:191–195CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Magyar-Tabori K, Dobranszki J, Hudak I (2011) Effect of cytokinin content of the regeneration media on in vitro rooting ability of adventitious apple shoots. Sci Hortic 129:910–991CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Maheswaran G, Welander M, Hutchinson JF, Graham MW, Richards D (1992) Transformation of apple rootstock M26 with Agrobacterium tumefaciens. J Plant Physiol 139:560–568CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Malnoy M, Boresjza-Wysocka EE, Norelli JL, Flaishman MA, Gidoni D, Aldwinckle HS (2010) Genetic transformation of apple (Malus x domestica) without use of a selectable marker gene. Tree Genet Genomes 6:423–433CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Marin JA, Jones OP, Hadlow WCC (1993) Micropropagation of columnar apple trees. J Hortic Sci 68:289–297CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Martin GC, Miller AN, Castle LA, Morris JW, Morris RO, Dandekar AM (1990) Feasibility studies using b-glucuronidase as a gene fusion marker in apple, peach and raddish. J Am Soc Hortic Sci 115:686–691Google Scholar
  104. Mehra PN, Saroj S (1979) Callus culture and organogenesis in apple. Journal of. Phytomorphology 29:310–324Google Scholar
  105. Mehta M, Ram R, Bhattacharya A (2014) A simple and cost effective liquid culture system for the micropropagaton of two commercially important apple rootstocks. Indian J Exp Biol 52:748–754PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  106. Miki B, McHugh S (2004) Selectable marker genes in transgenic plants: applications, alternatives and biosafety. J Biotechnol 107:193–232PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  107. M'Kada J, Dorin N, Bigot C (1991) In vitro propagation of Arctostaphylos uvaursi L. Sprengel.: comparison between two methodologies. Plant Cell Tissue Org Cult 24:217–222CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Modgil M, Sharma DR, Bhardwaj SV (1999) Micropropagation of apple cv. Tydeman’s early Worcester. Sci Hort 81:179–188CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Modgil M, Handa R, Sharma DR, Thakur M (2005) High efficiency shoot regeneration from leaf explants of in vitro grown shoots of apple. Acta Hortic 696:123–128CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Modgil M, Sharma T, Thakur M (2009) Commercially feasible protocol for rooting and acclimatization of micropropagated apple rootstocks. Acta Hortic 839:209–214CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Mouhtaridou GN, Sotiropoulos TE, Dimassi KN, Therios IN (2004) Effects of boron on growth, and chlorophyll and mineral contents of shoots of the apple rootstock MM106 cultured in vitro. Biol Plant 48:617–619CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Muleo R, Morini S (2006) Light quality regulates shoot cluster growth and development of MM 106 apple genotype in in vitro culture. Sci Hortic 108:364–370CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Muleo R, Morini S (2008) Physiological dissection of blue and red light regulation of apical dominance and branching in M9 apple rootstock growing in vitro. J Plant Physiol 165:1838–1846PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  114. Murashige T, Skoog F (1962) A revised medium for rapid growth and bioassays with tobacco tissue cultures. Physiol Plant 15:473–497CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Nabeela AB, Darkazanli K, Abdul-Kader AM (2009) Direct organogenesis and plantlet multiplication from leaf explants of in vitro-grown shoots of apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) cv. ‘Golden delicious’ and MM111 rootstock. Fruit Veg Cereal Sci Biotech 3:28–34Google Scholar
  116. Nhut DT, Huong NTD, Van Le B, da Silva JT, Fukai S, Tanaka M (2002) The changes in shoot regeneration potential of protocorm-like bodies derived from Lilium longiflorum young stem explants exposed to medium volume, pH, light intensity and sucrose concentration pretreatment. J Hortic Sci Biotechnol 77:79–82CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Nitsch JP (1959) Culture in vitro de tissus de fruits. Mesocarpe de pomme. Bull Soc Bot Fr 106:420–424CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Noiraud N, Maurousset L, Lemoine R (2001) Transport of polyols in higher plants. Plant Physiol Biochem 39:717–728CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Noiton D, Vine JH, Mullins MG (1992) Effects of serial subculture in vitro on the endogenous levels of indole-3-acetic acid and abscisic acid and rootability in micro-cuttings of ‘Jonathan’ apple. Plant Growth Regul 11:377–383CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Norelli JL, Aldwinckle H, Destefano-Beltran L, Jaynes J (1994) Transgenic “Malling 26” apple expressing the attacin E gene has increased resistance to Erwinia amylovora. Euphytica 77:123–128CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Norelli JL, Jones AL, Aldwinckle HS (2003) Fire blight management in the twenty-first century. Plant Dis 87:756–765CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Onay A, Jeffree CE (2000) Somatic embryogenesis in pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) In: Jain SM, Gupta PK, Newton RJ (eds) Somatic embryogenesis in woody plants, vol. 6, vol 6. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, pp 361–390CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Ongjanov V (1988) Regeneracija biljaka jabuke kulturom lista in vitro. Regeneration of apple plants by in vitro leaf culture. Jugosl Vocar 22:423–426Google Scholar
  124. Ou CQ, Li LG, He P, Zhang ZH (2008) In vitro adventitious shoot regeneration and induction of tetraploid from leaves of Hanfu apple. J Fruit Sci 25:293–297Google Scholar
  125. Pagliarani G, Paris R, Tartarini S, Sansavini S (2009) Cloning and expression of the major allergen genes in apple fruit. J Hortic Sci & Biotechnol 84:176–181CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Pan MJ, Van Staden J (1998) The use of charcoal in in vitro culture — a review. Plant Growth Regul 26:155–163CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Pasqualetto PL, Zimmerman RH, Fordham IJ (1988) The influence of cation and gelling agent concentrations on vitrification of apple cultivars in vitro. Plant Cell Tissue Org Cult 14:31–40CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Pawlicki N, Welander M (1995) Influence of carbohydrate source, auxin concentration and time to exposure on adventitious rooting of the apple rootstock Jork 9. Plant Sci 106:167–176CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Pereira-Netto AB, Petkowitz CLO, Cruz-Silva CTA, Gazzoni MT, Mello AFP, Silveira JLM (2007) Differential performance of marubakaido apple rootstock grown in culture media containing different agar brands: dynamic rheological analysis. In: In Vitro Cell Dev Biol Plant, vol 43, pp 356–363Google Scholar
  130. Pieniazek J, Jankiewiez LS (1966) Development of collateral buds due to Benzylaminopurine in dormant shoots. Bulletin de I' Academie Polonaise des Sciences ClV 14:185–187Google Scholar
  131. Polanco V, Paredas M, Becerra V, Perez E (2010) Advances in apple transformation technology to confer resistance to fungal diseases in apple crops: a Chilean perspective. Chil J Agric Res 70:297–308Google Scholar
  132. Pua EC, Chong C (1984) Requirement for sorbitol (D-glucitol) as carbon source for in vitro propagation of Malus robusta no. 5. Can J Bot 62:1545–1549CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Pua EC, Chong C, Rousselle GL (1983) In vitro propagation of Ottawa 3 apple rootstock. Can. Plant Sci 63:181–l88Google Scholar
  134. Quoirin M, Lepoivre P (1977) Improved media for in vitro culture of Prunus sp. Acta Hortic 78:437–442CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Rehman UR, James DJ, Caligari PDS (2009) Defining juvenility of M. hupehensis on regeneration of shoot buds and genetic transformation. Pak J Bot 41:2371–2377Google Scholar
  136. Rout JR, Lucas WJ (1996) Characterization and manipulation of embryogenic response from in vitro cultured mature inflorescences of rice (Oryza Sativa L.) Planta 198:127–138CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Rustaee M, Nazeri S, Ghadimzadeh M, Ali malboob M (2007) Optimizing in vitro regeneration from Iranian native dwarf rootstock of apple (Malus domestica Borkh). Int J Agri Biol 9:775–778Google Scholar
  138. Saad A (1965) The culture of apple callus tissue and its use in studies on phytopathogenicity of Venturia inequalis. Ph.D thesis, Winconson University, Madison, WisconsinGoogle Scholar
  139. Schaefer S, Medeiro SA, Ramírez JA, Galagovsky LR, Pereira-Netto AB (2002) Brassinosteroid- driven enhancement of the in vitro multiplication rate for the marubakaido apple rootstock [Malus prunifolia (Willd.) Borkh]. Plant Cell Rep 20:1093–1097CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Sharma RR, Singh SK (2002) Etiolation reduces phenolic content and polyphenol oxidase activity at the pre-culture stage and in-vitro exudation of phenols from mango explants. Trop Agric 79:94–99Google Scholar
  141. Sharma M, Modgil M, Sharma DR (2000) Successful propagation in vitro of apple rootstock MM106 and influence of phloroglucinol. Indian J Exp Biol 38:1236–1240PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  142. Sharma T, Modgil M, Thakur M (2007) Factors affecting induction and development of in vitro rooting in apple rootstocks. Indian J Exp Biol 45:824–829PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  143. Sharma P, Jha AB, Dubey RS, Pessarakali M (2012) Reactive oxygen species, oxidative damage, and Antioxidative defense mechanism in plants under stressful conditions. Journal of Botany 2012, Article ID 217037, 26  https://doi.org/10.1155/2012/217037
  144. Simmonds J (1983) Direct rooting of micropropagated M26 apple rootstocks. Sci Hort 21:233–241CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. Smolka A, Li XY, Heiket C, Welander M, Zhu LH (2010) Effects of transgenic rootstocks on growth and development of non-transgenic scion cultivars in apple. Transgenic Res 19:933–948PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  146. Song KJ, Ahn SY, Hwang JH, Shin YU, Park SW, An G (2000) Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of McIntosh Wijcik apple. J Kor Soc. Hort Sci 41:541–544Google Scholar
  147. Soni M, Thakur M, Modgil M (2011) In vitro multiplication of Merton I. 793- an apple rootstock suitable for replantation. IJBT 10:362–368Google Scholar
  148. Sotiropoulos TE, Molassiotis AN, Mouhteridou GI, Papadakis I, Dimassi KN, Therios IN et al (2006) Sucrose and sorbitol effects on shoot growth and proliferation in vitro, nutritional status and peroxidise and catalase isoenzymes of M9 and MM106 (Malus domestica Borkh.) rootstocks. Eur J Hortic Sci 71:114–119Google Scholar
  149. Tabalvandani MH, Yadollahi A, Atashkar D, Kalatejari S, Eftekhari M (2014) Optimized root production during Micropropagation of new Iranian apple hybrid rootstock (AZ X M9): effects of Fe-EDDHA and thiamine. IJABBR 4:297–303Google Scholar
  150. Teresa O (1992) Influence of arginine on in vitro rooting of dwarf apple rootstock. Plant Cell Tissue Org Cult 31:9–14CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. Thomas TD (2008) The role of activated charcoal in plant tissue culture. Biotechnol Adv 26:618–631PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  152. Tisserat B (1979) Propagation of data palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) in vitro. J Exp Bot 30:1275–1283CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. Van Nieuwkerk JP, Zimmerman RH, Fordham I (1986) Thidiazuron stimulation of apple shoot proliferation in vitro. Hortscience 21:516–518Google Scholar
  154. Varsha, Kumar A (2008) Studies on in vitro propagation of apple rootstock MM111. M.Sc. Thesis, Thapar University PatialaGoogle Scholar
  155. Walkey DG (1972) Production of apple plantlets from axillary bud meristem. Can J Plant Sci 52:1085–1087CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. Wang Z, Stutte GW (1992) The role of carbohydrates in active osmotic adjustment in apple under water stress. J Amer Soc Hort Sct 117:816–823Google Scholar
  157. Wang Q, Tang H, Quan Y, Zhou G (1994) Phenol induced browning and establishment of shoot-tip explants of ‘Fuji’ apple and ‘Jinhua’ pear cultured in vitro. J Hortic Sci 69:833–839CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. Ward SP, Leyser O (2004) Shoot branching. Curr Opin Plant Biol 7:73–78PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. Webster AD (1997) A review of fruit tree rootstock research and development. Acta Hort (ISHS) 451:53–74CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. Webster CA, Jones OP (1989) Micropropagation of apple rootstock M9: effect of sustained subculture on apparent rejuvenation in vitro. J Hortic Sci 64:421–428CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. Webster CA, Jones OP (1991) Micropropagation of some cold hardy dwarfing rootstocks for apple. J Hortic Sci 66:1–6CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. Welander M (1985) In vitro shoot and root formation in the apple cultivar Åkerö. Ann Bot 55:249–261CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. Welander M (1988) Plant regeneration from leaf and stem segments of shoots raised in vitro from mature apple trees. J. Plant Physiol 132:738–744CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. Welander M (1989) Regulation of in vitro shoot multiplication in Syringa, Alnus and Malus by different carbon sources. J Hortic Sci 64:361–366CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. Welander M (2006) In vitro rooting of the apple rootstock M26 in adult and juvenile growth phases and acclimatization of the plantlets. Physiol Plant 58:231–238CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  166. Welander M, Maheswaran G (1992) Shoot regeneration from leaf explants of dwarfing apple rootstocks. J Plant Physiol 140:223–228CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. Werner EM, Boe AA (1980) In vitro propagation of Malling 7 apple rootstock. Hortscience 15:509–510Google Scholar
  168. Westwood MN (1993) Temperate-zone pomology: physiology and culture, 3rd edn. Timber Press, Portland, ORGoogle Scholar
  169. Wheaton TA, Whitney JD, Castle WS, Muraro RP, Browning HW, Tucker DPH (1995) Citrus Scion and rootstock, topping height, and tree spacing affect tree size, yield, fruit quality, and economic return. J Amer Soc Hort Sci 120:861–870Google Scholar
  170. Xu J, Wang Y, Zhan Y, Chai T (2008) Rapid in vitro multiplication and ex vitro rooting of Malus zumi (Matsumura). Acta Physiol Plant 30:129–132CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. Yaseen M, Ahmed T, Abbasi NA, Hafiz IA (2009) In vitro shoot proliferation competence of apple rootstocks M9 and M26 on different carbon sources. Pak J Bot 41:1781–1795Google Scholar
  172. Yepes LM, Aldwinckle HS (1994) Micropropagation of thirteen Malus cultivars and rootstocks, and effect of antibiotics on proliferation. Plant Growth Regul 15:55–67CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  173. Zanandrea I, Bacarin MA, Schmitz DD, Braga EJB, Peters JA (2006) Chlorophyll fluorescence in in vitro cultivated apple. Rev Bras Agroci Pelotas 12:305–308Google Scholar
  174. Zhang Z, Sun A, Cong Y, Sheng B, Yao Q, Cheng ZM (2006) Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of the apple rootstock Malus micromalus makino with the rolc gene. In Vitro Cell Dev Biol-Plant 42:491–497CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  175. Zhu LH, Holefors A, Ahlman A, Xue ZT, Welander M (2001) Transformation of the apple rootstock M.9/29 with the rolB gene and its influence on rooting and growth. Plant Sci 160:433–439PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  176. Zhu LH, Li XY, Welander M (2003) Micropropagation of the apple rootstock M26 by temporary immersion system (TIS). Acta Hortic 81:313–318Google Scholar
  177. Zhu LH, Li XY, Ahlman A, Xue ZT, Welander M (2004) The use of mannose as a selection agent in transformation of the apple rootstock M.26 via Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Acta Hortic 663:503–506CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  178. Zimmerman RH, Fordham IM (1985) Simplified method for rooting apple cultivars in vitro. J Am Soc Hortic Sci 110:34–38Google Scholar
  179. Zimmerman RH, Bhardwaj SV, Fordham IM (1995) Use of starch-gelled medium for tissue culture of some fruit crops. Plant Cell Tissue Org Cult 43:207–213Google Scholar
  180. Zuo J, Niu QW, Ikeda Y, Chua NH (2002) Marker free transformation increasing transformation frequency by the use of regeneration promoting gene. Curr Opin Biotechnol 13:173–180PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Amanpreet Kaur
    • 1
  • Davinder Singh
    • 1
  • Varsha
    • 1
  • Nidhi Gupta
    • 1
  • Anil Kumar
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of BiotechnologyTIFAC-Centre of Relevance and Excellence in Agro and Industrial Biotechnology (CORE), Thapar UniversityPatialaIndia

Personalised recommendations