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Anti-inflammatory Activity

  • María Rosario Alonso
  • Claudia A. Anesini
  • Renzo F. Martino
Chapter

Abstract

It is known that inflammation involves a complex series of protective and reparative responses to tissue injury caused by either mechanical and autoimmune stimuli or infection. Inflammation can be either acute or chronic. In the acute phase, in the early stages of inflammation, neutrophils, macrophages, and dendritic cells contribute to cytokine production that spreads the inflammatory events. Although inflammation has a protective role, many diseases have the etiological origin in inflammatory processes such as atherosclerosis, arthritis, cancer, and ischemic heart disease. There are many pathways involving the synthesis and secretion of pro-inflammatory mediators. In this chapter we analyze different intracellular signaling routes related to inflammation. There are two principal types of anti-inflammatory drugs, namely, steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, which reduce inflammation by binding to cortisol receptors and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, which decrease damage by inhibition of cyclooxygenase enzymes. These anti-inflammatory drugs entail many risks, in particular, gastrointestinal ulceration, bleeding, and hepatotoxicity. Over the last decades, the potential of sesquiterpene lactones as anti-inflammatory agents has been pointed out by different authors.

Keywords

Acute inflammation Chronic inflammation Pro-inflammatory mediators Intracellular signaling routes Anti-inflammatory activity Sesquiterpene lactones 

Abbreviations

AP-1

activator protein-1

ARE

antioxidant response element

C

complement component

Chemokine R

chemokine receptors

COX-2

ciclooxigenase 2

CR

complement receptor

CysLTs

cysteinyl leukotrienes

Cytokine R

cytokine receptors

DAMPs

damage-associated molecular patterns

ERK

extracellular signal-regulated kinase

HO-1

heme oxygenase 1

IFN-γ

interferon-γ

IKK

IκB kinase

IL

interleukins

IL-1ra

IL-1 receptor antagonist

IL-1RAcP

IL-1 receptor accessory protein

IL-1RI

IL-1 type 1 receptor

IL-1RII

IL-1 type 2 receptor

iNOS

inducible type-2 isoform of nitric oxide synthase NOS-2

JAKs

Janus kinases

JNK

c-Jun N-terminal kinase

LPS

lipopolysaccharide

LTs

leukotrienes

MAPKs

mitogen-activated protein kinases

MCP-1

monocyte chemoattractant protein 1

MSU

monosodium urate

NF-κB

nuclear factor kappa B

NLRP3

inflammasome complex Nod-like receptor family pyrin domain containing 3

NLRs

Nucleotide-binding oligomerization-domain protein-like receptors

Nrf2

factor (erythroid-derived 2)-related factor 2

NSAIDs

Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs

PAMPs

pathogen-associated molecular patterns

PGs

prostaglandins

PLA2

phospholipase A2

PMNs

polymorphonuclear neutrophils

Purine R

purine receptors

RLRs

RIG-I-like (retinoic acid inducible gene 1) receptor family

RNS

reactive nitrogen species

ROS

reactive oxygen species

STATs

signal transducers and activators of transcription

STLs

sesquiterpene lactones

TGF

tumor growth factor

Th

helper T cells

TLRs

Toll-like receptors

TNF-α

tumor necrosis factor alpha

TXs

thromboxanes

TyK2

tyrosine kinase 2

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • María Rosario Alonso
    • 1
    • 2
  • Claudia A. Anesini
    • 2
    • 3
  • Renzo F. Martino
    • 4
  1. 1.Universidad de Buenos Aires, Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica, Departamento de Farmacología, Cátedra de FarmacologíaBuenos AiresArgentina
  2. 2.CONICET – Universidad de Buenos Aires, Instituto de Química y Metabolismo del Fármaco (IQUIMEFA)Buenos AiresArgentina
  3. 3.Universidad de Buenos Aires, Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica, Departamento de Farmacología, Cátedra de FarmacognosiaBuenos AiresArgentina
  4. 4.Universidad de Buenos Aires, Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica, Departamento de Microbiología, Inmunología y Biotecnología, Cátedra de InmunologíaBuenos AiresArgentina

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