Tip Chapter: Anatomy of the Face, Neck, Hands and Genital Areas

  • Mirna Duarte BarrosEmail author
  • Antonio Cardoso Pinto
  • Bianca Maria Liquidato
  • Wagner Ricardo Montor


The face, neck, and hands have fundamental aesthetic importance. The face presents a thin-layer skin and its soft parts lie on a bone structure composed of the facial skeleton, the mandible, and part of the frontal bone. A group of subcutaneous muscles, the muscles of facial mimicry, move the skin promoting facial expression according to the emotions felt. The neck, like the face, is covered with thin skin and has a layer of subcutaneous cellular tissue of varying thickness between the dermis of the skin and the superficial lamina of the cervical fascia. The anatomical approach of neck structures is done regionally, with the aim of highlighting the main deep organs present and their projection on the surface of the neck. The hand has a dorsal surface, volar or palmar surface, and radial and ulnar borders. All individuals have roughly similar markings on any part of the body, but the details are unique. The pelvis presents the shape of a wedge, formed by the sacrum and coccyx pressed between the bones of the hips. Perineum is the space that protrudes in the region of the external genitals in the form of a rhombus between the pubic symphysis, ischiopubic branches, ischiatic tuberosities, and sacrotuberous ligaments and coccyx. The irrigation, venous and lymphatic drainage, innervation, and superficial anatomical aspects of these body regions are described, with emphasis on aspects of major relevance in aesthetic and dermatological procedures.


Anatomy Face Neck Hand Pelvis Perineum 



We express our thanks to Livia Burchianti, MD, for the illustrations and to Carlos José Lazzarini Mendes, MD, for preparing the dissected specimens.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mirna Duarte Barros
    • 1
    Email author
  • Antonio Cardoso Pinto
    • 1
  • Bianca Maria Liquidato
    • 1
  • Wagner Ricardo Montor
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of MorphologySanta Casa de São Paulo School of Medical SciencesSão PauloBrazil
  2. 2.Department of Physiological SciencesSanta Casa de São Paulo School of Medical SciencesSão PauloBrazil

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