Introduction: What Is Hyaluronic Acid Filler?
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Hyaluronic acid (HA) is a glycosaminoglycan composed of numerous repetitions of D-glucuronic acid and N-acetyl-D-glucosamine. It is found naturally in many tissues of the human system, including the skin, the synovial fluid of joints, the vitreous humor of eyes, and the cartilage. About 50% of it is found in the skin. In physiological pH, it is a polyanionic polymer and highly loaded, so that it binds extensively to water, being able to retain it up to 1000 times its volume  (Fig. 39.1).
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