Introduction: What Is Botulinum Toxin?

  • Doris HexselEmail author
  • Fernanda Camozzato
  • Carolina Siega


Since its development for aesthetic use, botulinum toxin type A rapidly became one of the most popular cosmetic procedures. It is a fast minimally invasive and low-risk procedure, used with high efficacy in facial and non-facial indications.

Three commercial formulations are approved for cosmetic use, but they are not interchangeable. Dose equivalences between these formulations have been studied to provide similar results. The field of effects of all toxins is dose dependent.

Glabella was the first cosmetic indication approved by the regulatory agencies. Initially, only upper facial indications were targeted. Over time, middle and lower face indications and also non-facial indications started to be treated with successful results.

Proper technique, knowledge of facial anatomy, and correct evaluation of each individual’s characteristics are essential to obtain the best efficacious results. Non-cosmetic and cosmetic side effects may occur after the use of botulinum toxin type A. They are mostly technique related, mild, and transitory.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Doris Hexsel
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Fernanda Camozzato
    • 1
  • Carolina Siega
    • 1
  1. 1.Brazilian Center for Studies in DermatologyPorto AlegreBrazil
  2. 2.Hexsel Dermatologic ClinicsPorto Alegre/Rio de JaneiroBrazil

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