Pearl Chapter: Basis of Photoaging and the Use of Chemical Peelings

  • Suelen Montagner
  • Adilson Da Costa


Skin aging is determined by intrinsic and extrinsic factors. In the first case, the skin exhibits progressive, time-dependent deterioration signs, determined by endogenous factors. This process may also be induced or intensified by environmental factors, such as pollution, smoking, and sun exposure, which are extrinsic factors. Over time, molecular changes trigger organic alterations that, ultimately, lead to aging. With the increased life expectancy, the study of organic processes has been stimulated, with the purpose of minimizing aging effects.


Aging Cellular senescence Skin aging Sun exposure Smoking Ultraviolet rays 


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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Suelen Montagner
    • 1
  • Adilson Da Costa
    • 2
  1. 1.Private ClinicCampinasBrazil
  2. 2.Instituto de Assistência Médica ao Servidor Público Estadual, Tenured International Professor and Mentor for PhD and MSc ProgramsSão PauloBrazil

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