Advertisement

Myths and Misperceptions

  • Thomas Muehlberger
Chapter

Abstract

Myths and misperceptions about migraine are nourished from different sources. Individuals without migraine often see migraine as something having to do with personality, mood, or behavior. In migraine patients, the disorder can produce a distinct need to explore its causality. Patients often feel that there must be a reason why they are afflicted by it. This can lead to fruitless ventures like the removal of amalgam fillings or the notion of a brain tumor as the supposed cause. Doctors, on the other hand, may add to the confusion by ordering inappropriate neuroimaging, the supposed promise of some kind of future genetic panacea, or the request to monitor a list of alleged triggers. Although migraine afflicts more than a tenth of the population worldwide, it is certainly under-recognized, underdiagnosed, and undertreated. The lack of precise knowledge of its pathophysiology contributes to migraine being widely misunderstood. Sometimes bafflingly simple solutions are on offer for extraordinarily complex problems, and they are usually wrong.

References

  1. 1.
    Mehle ME, Kremer PS. Sinus CT scan findings in “sinus headache” migraineurs. Headache. 2008;48:67–71.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Cady RK, Dodick DW, Levine HL, et al. Sinus headache: a neurology, otolaryngology, allergy, and primary care consensus on diagnosis and treatment. Mayo Clin Proc. 2005;80:908–16.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Hoover S. Migraines and the sinuses, report on 441 cases. Rhinol Suppl. 1992;14:111–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Silberstein SD. Headaches due to nasal and paranasal sinus disease. Neurol Clin. 2004;22:1–19.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Schreiber CP, Hutchinson S, Webster CJ, et al. Prevalence of migraine in patients with a history of self-reported or physician-diagnosed “sinus” headache. Arch Intern Med. 2004;164:1769–72.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Isler H. Observations on the history of headache and migraine (article in German). Ther Umsch. 1997;54:54–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    BBC News. Migraine cause ‘identified’ as genetic defect, 27 Sept 2010. http://www.bbc.com/news/health-11408113.
  8. 8.
    The Telegraph. Scientists discover migraine gene, 2 May 2013. http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/health/news/10032368/Scientists-discover-migraine-gene.html.
  9. 9.
    Weller CM, et al. Migraine genes – clinical and preclinical perspectives. In: Borsook D, et al., editors. The migraine brain. New York: Oxford University Press; 2012. p. 145–65.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Nyholt DR, van den Maagdenberg AM. Genome-wide association studies in migraine: current state and route to follow. Curr Opin Neurol. 2016;29:302–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Thomsen LL, Eriksen MK, Roemer SF, Andersen I, Olesen J, Russell MB. A population-based study of familial hemiplegic migraine suggests revised diagnostic criteria. Brain. 2002;125:1379–91.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Montagna P. The primary headaches: genetics, epigenetics and a behavioural genetic model. J Headache Pain. 2008;9:57–69.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Wessman M, Terwindt GM, Kaunisto MA, Palotie A, Ophoff RA. Migraine: a complex genetic disorder. Lancet Neurol. 2007;6:521–32.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Anttila V, Stefansson H, Kallela M. Genome-wide association study of migraine implicates a common susceptibility variant on 8q22.1. Nat Genet. 2010;42:869–73.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Anttila V, Winsvold BS, Gormley P, et al. Genome-wide meta-analysis identifies new susceptibility loci for migraine. Nat Genet. 2013;45:912–7.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Gormley P, Anttila V, Winsvold BS, et al. Meta-analysis of 375,000 individuals identifies 38 susceptibility loci for migraine. Nat Genet. 2016;48:856–66.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Freilinger T, Anttila V, de Vries B, et al. Genome-wide association analysis identifies susceptibility loci for migraine without aura. Nat Genet. 2012;44:777–82.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Eising E, de Vries B, Ferrari MD, Terwindt GM, van den Maagdenberg AM. Pearls and pitfalls in genetic studies of migraine. Cephalalgia. 2013;33:614–25.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Di Lorenzo C, Santorelli F, van den Maagdenberg A. Genetics of headache. In: Ashina M, Gepetti P, editors. Pathophysiology of headaches. Cham, Switzerland: Springer; 2015. p. 83–99.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Mulder EJ, Van Baal C, Gaist D, et al. Genetic and environmental influences on migraine: a twin study across six countries. Twin Res. 2003;6:422–31.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Eising E, A Datson N, van den Maagdenberg AM, Ferrari MD. Epigenetic mechanisms in migraine: a promising avenue? BMC Med. 2013;11:26.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Schürks M. Genetics of migraine in the age of genome-wide association studies. J Headache Pain. 2012;13:1–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Luykx J, Mason M, Ferrari MD, Carpay J. Are migraineurs at increased risk of adverse drug responses? A meta-analytic comparison of topiramate-related adverse drug reactions in epilepsy and migraine. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2009;85:283–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Viana M, Terrazzino S, Genazzani AA, et al. Pharmacogenomics of episodic migraine: time has come for a step forward. Pharmacogenomics. 2014;15:541–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Ask-Upmark E. Inverted nipples and migraine. Acta Med Scand. 1953;147:191–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Annas GJ, Elias S. 23andMe and the FDA. N Engl J Med. 2014;370:985–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
  28. 28.
    McCarthy JG, Schreiber J, Karp N, Thorne CH, Grayson BH. Lengthening the human mandible by gradual distraction. Plast Reconstr Surg. 1992;89:1–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Lemperle G, Radu D. Facial plastic surgery in children with Down’s syndrome. Plast Reconstr Surg. 1980;66:337–42.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Green MW, Green LM, Rothrock JF. Managing your headaches. 2nd ed. New York: Springer Science Inc.; 2005. p. 137–8.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
  32. 32.
    Lipton RB, Bigal ME, Rush SR, et al. Migraine practice patterns among neurologists. Neurology. 2004;62:1926–31.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Lu SR, Wang SJ, Fuh JL. The practice pattern of migraine management among neurologists in Taiwan. Cephalalgia. 2006;26:310–3.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Callaghan BC, Kerber KA, Pace RJ, Skolarus L, Cooper W, Burke JF. Headache neuroimaging: routine testing when guidelines recommend against them. Cephalalgia. 2015;35:1144–52.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Kernick D, Stapley S, Goadsby PJ, Hamilton W. What happens to new-onset headache presented to primary care? A case-cohort study using electronic primary care records. Cephalalgia. 2008;28:1188–95.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    American Academy of Neurology. Practice parameter: the utility of neuroimaging in the evaluation of headache in patients with normal neurologic examinations. Neurology. 1994;44:1353–4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Katzman GL, Dagher AP, Patronas NJ. Incidental findings on brain magnetic resonance imaging from 1000 asymptomatic volunteers. JAMA. 1999;282:36–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Frishberg BM. Neuroimaging in headache: lessons not learned. Cephalalgia. 2015;35:1141–3.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Kahn K, Finkel A. It is a tumor – current review of headache and brain tumor. Curr Pain Headache Rep. 2014;18:421.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
  41. 41.
    Frishberg BM. The utility of neuroimaging in the evaluation of headache in patients with normal neurologic examinations. Neurology. 1994;44:1191–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Loder E, Weizenbaum E, Frishberg B, Silberstein S. Choosing wisely in headache medicine: American Headache Society’s list of five things physicians and patients should question. Headache. 2013;53:1651–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Shevel E. Neuroimaging in migraine. S Afr Med J. 2016;106:427.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Didion J. In Bed. In: Collected nonfiction. Everyman’s library. New York: Alfred A. Knopf; 2006. p. 302.Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Kung TA, Pannucci CJ, Chamberlain JL, Cederna PS. Migraine surgery practice patterns and attitudes. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2012;129:623–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Elliot RH. Migraine and mysticism. Postgrad Med J. 1932;86:444–59.Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Friedman AP. The headache in history, literature, and legend. Bull N Y Acad Med. 1972;48:661–81.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Friedman AP. Migraine: variations on a theme. Bull Los Angeles Neurol Sac. 1975;40:83–95.Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Juergens TP, May A. Does the neurobiology of migraine make migraine patients “difficult”? Headache. 2012;52:1607–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Friedman DI. Your loved one has migraines. Headache. 2016;56:1368–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Green MW, Green LM, Rothrock JF. Managing your headaches. 2nd ed. New York: Springer Science Inc.; 2005. p. 111–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Young WB, Park JE, Tian IX, Kempner J. The stigma of migraine. PLoS One. 2013;8:e54074.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Fordyce WE. An operant conditioning method for managing chronic pain. Postgrad Med. 1973;53:123–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Vowles KE, Gross RT. Work-related beliefs about injury and physical capability for work in individuals with chronic pain. Pain. 2003;101:291–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Cohen GL, Rolak LA. Thomas Jefferson’s headaches: were they migraines? Headache. 2006;46:492–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Craig KD. Emotions and psychobiology. In: Wall PD, Melzack R, editors. Textbook of pain. 4th ed. London: Churchill Livingstone; 1999. p. 331–43.Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Villemure C, Bushnell MC. Cognitive modulation of pain: how do attention and emotion influence pain processing? Pain. 2002;95:195–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Breslau N, Lipton RB, Stewart WF, Schultz LR, Welch KM. Comorbidity of migraine and depression: investigating potential etiology and prognosis. Neurology. 2003;60:1308–12.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Rothrock JF. Menstrual migraine. Headache. 2009;49:1399–400.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Multon S, Pardutz A, Mosen J, et al. Lack of estrogen increases pain in the trigeminal formalin model: a behavioural and immunocytochemical study of transgenic ArKO mice. Pain. 2005;114:257–65.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    MacGregor EA, Blau JN. Migraine: an informative method of communication. Headache. 1992;32:356–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Thomas Muehlberger
    • 1
  1. 1.Medsteps AGChamSwitzerland

Personalised recommendations