Variable Weathering Response of Architectural Marlstones Against NaCl Crystallization

  • Anastasia Michalopoulou
  • Demitrios Sioulas
  • Maria Amenta
  • Vasillis Kilikoglou
  • Ioannis KaratasiosEmail author


Based on the case of ancient theatre of Zea, in Greece, this work aims to study the geological and microstructural parameters of marls used in stone monuments, which control their durability and variable weathering response against salt damage and swelling phenomena. The ancient theatre of Zea is located very close to the coast of Piraeus, in Athens, Greece, and it is heavily exposed to marine aerosols and salt crystallization. Representative samples from different architectural parts were studied by means of petrographic examination (PM, SEM/EDX) and mineralogical analysis (XRD), clay content (DTA/TG), microstructure (open porosity, water absorption coefficient, pore size distribution), strength properties (compressive and three-point bending strength) and salt (Cl) content. Moreover, weathering profiles and salt deposition on building stones were studied in SEM. For each category, transport phenomena and salt damage were experimentally approached and interpreted in an attempt to correlate their durability, weathering patterns and degradation rate with those patterns observed on the site. The results indicated the key role of clay content on the location of precipitated halite (NaCl) crystals as well as the effect of the mechanical properties on crack damage prevention.


Salt damage Crystallization Marls Transport phenomena Clay content Stone monuments 


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© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Anastasia Michalopoulou
    • 1
  • Demitrios Sioulas
    • 1
  • Maria Amenta
    • 1
  • Vasillis Kilikoglou
    • 1
  • Ioannis Karatasios
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Laboratory of Archaeological Materials, Institute of Nanoscience and NanotechnologyNational Centre for Scientific Research DemokritosAthensGreece

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