Advertisement

Nuts

  • Antonio Capurso
  • Gaetano Crepaldi
  • Cristiano Capurso
Chapter
Part of the Practical Issues in Geriatrics book series (PIG)

Abstract

The nuts are fruits composed of a hard shell and a seed, which is generally edible. In a general context, however, a wide variety of dried seeds are called nuts, but in a botanical context, there is an additional requirement that the shell does not open to release the seed.

References

  1. 1.
    Luo C, Zhang Y, Ding Y, Shan Z, Chen S, Yu M, Hu FB, Liu L. Nut consumption and risk of type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and all-cause mortality: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Am J Clin Nutr. 2014;100:256–69.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Rajaram S, Hasso Haddad E, Mejia A, Sabaté J. Walnuts and fatty fish influence different serum lipid fractions in normal to mildly hyperlipidemic individuals: a randomized controlled study. Am J Clin Nutr. 2009;89:1657S–63S.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Cosmulescu SN, Trandafir I, Achim G, Botu M, Baciu A, Gruia M. Phenolics of green husk in mature walnut fruits. Notulae Botanicae Horti Agrobotanici Cluj-Napoca. 2010;38:53–6.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Cerdá B, Tomás-Barberán FA, Espín JC. Metabolism of antioxidant and chemopreventive ellagitannins from strawberries, raspberries, walnuts, and oak-aged wine in humans: identification of biomarkers and individual variability. J Agric Food Chem. 2005;53:227–35.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Ji YB, Qu ZY, Zou X. Juglone-induced apoptosis in human gastric cancer SGC-7901 cells via the mitochondrial pathway. Exp Toxicol Pathol. 2011;63:69–78.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Inbaraj JJ, Chignell CF. Cytotoxic action of Juglone and Plumbagin: a mechanistic study using HaCaT keratinocytes. Chem Res Toxicol. 2004;17:55–62.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Kang I, Buckner T, Shay NF, Gu L, Chung S. Improvements in metabolic health with consumption of Ellagic acid and subsequent conversion into Urolithins: evidence and mechanisms. Adv Nutr. 2016;7:961–72.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    “Qualified Claims About Cardiovascular Disease Risk: Walnuts & Heart Disease Docket No. 02P-0292”. US Food and Drug Administration. 9 March 2004.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Chaouali N, Gana I, Dorra A, Khelifi F, Nouioui A, Masri W, Belwaer I, Ghorbel H, Hedhili A. Potential toxic levels of cyanide in almonds (Prunus amygdalus), apricot kernels (Prunus armeniaca), and almond syrup. ISRN Toxicol. 2013;2013:610648.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Bitterman JL, Chung JH. Metabolic effects of resveratrol: addressing the controversies. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2015;72:1473–88.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Dower JI, Geleijnse JM, Gijsbers L, Zock PL, Kromhout D, Hollman PC. Effects of the pure flavonoids epicatechin and quercetin on vascular function and cardiometabolic health: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial. Am J Clin Nutr. 2015;101:914–21.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Chen AY, Chen YC. A review of the dietary flavonoid, kaempferol on human health and cancer chemoprevention. Food Chem. 2013;138:2099–107.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Kim SH, Choi KC. Anti-cancer effect and underlying mechanism(s) of Kaempferol, a phytoestrogen, on the regulation of apoptosis in diverse cancer cell models. Toxicol Res. 2013;29:229–34.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Hoek-van den Hil EF, van Schothorst EM, van der Stelt I, Swarts HJ, van Vliet M, Amolo T, Vervoort JJ, Venema D, Hollman PC, Rietjens IM, Keijer J. Direct comparison of metabolic health effects of the flavonoids quercetin, hesperetin, epicatechin, apigenin and anthocyanins in high-fat-diet-fed mice. Genes Nutr. 2015;10:23.CrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Chen CY, Milbury PE, Lapsley K, Blumberg JB. Flavonoids from almond skins are bioavailable and act synergistically with vitamins C and E to enhance hamster and human LDL resistance to oxidation. J Nutr. 2005;135:1366–1373.2005.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Cumo C. Foods that changed history: how foods shaped civilization from the ancient World to the present. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO; 2015. p. 284.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Campbell TC, Campbell TM. The China study. Dallas, TX: Benbella Books; 2006.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Taylor CL. Qualified Health Claims: Letter of Enforcement Discretion–Nuts and Coronary Heart Disease (Docket No 02P-0505). Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition, FDA. (14 July 2003).Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Nuts (including peanuts). Micronutrient Information Center. Corvallis, OR: Linus Pauling Institute, Oregon State University; 2009.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Full Report (All Nutrients): 12120, Nuts, hazelnuts of filberts. USDA National Nutrient Database, version SR-27. 2015.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Perna S, Giacosa A, Bonitta G, Bologna C, Isu A, Guido D, Rondanelli M. Effects of hazelnut consumption on blood lipids and body weight: a systematic review and bayesian meta-analysis. Nutrients. 2016;8:E747.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Caimari A, Puiggròs F, Suárez M, Crescenti A, Laos S, Ruiz JA, Alonso V, Moragas J, Del Bas JM, Arola L. The intake of a hazelnut skin extract improves the plasma lipid profile and reduces the lithocholic/deoxycholic bile acid faecal ratio, a risk factor for colon cancer, in hamsters fed a high-fat diet. Food Chem. 2015;167:138–44.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Yurttas HC, Schafer HW, Warthesen JJ. Antioxidant activity of nontocopherol hazelnut (Corylus spp.) phenolics. J Food Sci. 2000;65:276–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Remains of seven types of edible nuts and nutcrackers found at 780,000-year-old archaeological site. Scienceblog.com. February 2002.
  25. 25.
    Okay Y. The comparison of some pistachios cultivars regarding their fat, fatty acids and protein content. Die Gartenbauwissenschaff. 2002;67:107–13.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Dreher ML. Pistachio nuts: composition and potential health benefit. Nutr Rev. 2012;70:234–40.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Bullò M, Juanola-Falgarona M, Hernàndez-Alonso P, Salas-Salvadò J. Nutrition attributes and health effects of pistachios nuts. Br J Nutr. 2015;113(suppl 2):S79–93.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Kris-Etherton PM, Zhao G, Binkoski AE, Coval SM, Etherton TD. The effects of nuts on coronary heart disease. Nutr Rev. 2001;59:103–11.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Dreher ML, Maher CV, Kearney P. The traditional and emerging role of nuts in healthful diets. Nutr Rev. 1996;54:241–5.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Brown D. FDA considers health claim for nuts. J Am Diet Assoc. 2003;103:426.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Mukuddem-Petersen J, Oosthuizen W, Jerling JC. Systematic review of the effects of nuts on blood lipid profiles in humans. J Nutr. 2005;135:2082–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Estruch R, Ros E, Salas-Salvadó J, Covas MI, Corella D, Arós F, Gómez-Gracia E, Ruiz-Gutiérrez V, Fiol M, Lapetra J, Lamuela-Raventos RM, Serra-Majem L, Pintó X, Basora J, Muñoz MA, Sorlí JV, Martínez JA, Martínez-González MA, Study Investigators PREDIMED. Primary prevention of cardiovascular disease with a Mediterranean diet. New Engl J Med. 2013;368:1279–90.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Samieri C, Féart C, Proust-Lima C, et al. Olive oil consumption, plasma oleic acid, and stroke incidence: the Three-City study. Neurology. 2011;77:418–25.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Misirli G, Benetou V, Lagiou P, Bamia C, Trichopoulos D, Trichopoulou A. Relation of the traditional Mediterranean diet to cerebrovascular disease in a Mediterranean population. Am J Epidemiol. 2012;176:1185–92.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Sherzai A, Heim LT, Boothby C, Sherzai AD. Stroke, food groups, and dietary patterns: a systematic review. Nutr Rev. 2012;70:423–35.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Estruch R, Martinez-González MA, Corella D, et al. Effects of a Mediterranean-style diet on cardiovascular risk factors: a randomized trial. Ann Intern Med. 2006;145(1):11.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Martínez-González MA, Salas-Salvadó J, Estruch R, Corella D, Fitó M, Ros E, Predimed Investigators. Benefits of the Mediterranean diet: insights from the PREDIMED study. Prog Cardiovac Dis. 2015;58:50–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Antonio Capurso
    • 1
  • Gaetano Crepaldi
    • 2
  • Cristiano Capurso
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Internal MedicineSchool of Medicine, University of BariBariItaly
  2. 2.Department of Biomedical ScienceCNR Neuroscience InstitutePadovaItaly
  3. 3.Department of Medical and Surgical SciencesSchool of Medicine, University of FoggiaFoggiaItaly

Personalised recommendations