Advertisement

Analysis of Laws in Selected Countries Around the World

  • Ngianga-Bakwin Kandala
  • Paul Nzinga Komba
Chapter

Abstract

In the majority of African countries, ordinary criminal laws exist that would treat FGM as a form of bodily harm, sexual violence and abuse against females. However, under the international pressure and for the avoidance of any doubt, many states on the continent have passed specific legislation, which targets this particular crime. Yet, as will be apparent in this chapter, the FGM practice is one of those crimes, which has escaped the reaches of the criminal justice system in the majority of African jurisdictions. We will consider both the law and practice in those countries, which have been designed as rife with incidences of FGM and sexual violence against women. It has been previously noted by some scholars (Shell-Duncan et al. 2014) that criminal law is not the right vehicle to eliminate FGM. We think that the law is necessary in all cases. Another view proposed by others is that it would be rational to reform the criminal justice system and to rebuild the eroding trust among the users of the system (Carline and Easteal 2014). That would include rethinking the way in which the system deals with witnesses of FGM and scrapping the requirement that victims must pay for access to civil remedies. We argue for the latter view because of its vital insight into how the law can effectively benefit the victims, especially during the transition to the elimination of the practice through educational methods suggested by the former view.

References

  1. Burkinabe Criminal Code, Art. 380. Retrieved, from http://www.legiburkina.bf/Documents/CODE%20PENAL.pdf
  2. Canada: Immigration and Refugee Board of Canada, Democratic Republic of the Congo: The practice of female genital mutilation (FGM) and legislation prohibiting the practice (2008–March 2012), 17 April 2012, COD104024.E, available at: http://www.refworld.org/docid/4f9e5ae62.html. Accessed 6 Apr 2018.
  3. Carline, A., & Easteal, P. (2014). Shades of grey—domestic and sexual violence against women. Law reform and society. Abingdon: Routeledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. CEDAW. (1982). Report on Egypt signing the protocol to the UN convention for the elimination of all violence against women. This report can be accessed at http://www2.ohchr.org/english/bodies/cedaw/cedaws45.htm
  5. Child Right Act. (2007). Supplement to the Sierra Leone Gazette Extraordinary Vol. CXXXVIII, No. 43 dated 3rd September, 2007.Google Scholar
  6. DRC. (2006). Article 3, paragraph 7. Loi no. 06/018 du 20 juillet 2006 modifiant et complétant le Décret du 30 janvier 1940 portant Code pénal congolais. Accessed 15 Mar 2012.Google Scholar
  7. DRC Criminal Code. (2016). Law 06/018 of 20 July 2016 on sexual violence. Retrieved, from www.leganet.cd/legislation/Jo/2006/Jo/2006/Jo.01.08.2006.C.P.P.pdf
  8. Equality Now. (2011). Discrimination against Women in Law. A report drawing from the concluding observations of the committee on the elimination of discrimination against Women. Retrieved from https://www.equalitynow.org/sites/default/files/WG_Report_EN.pdf
  9. Getachew, I. (2006). Battling an ancient tradition: female genital mutilation in Ethiopia. Retrieved, from https://www.unicef.org/protection/ethiopia_34881.html
  10. Ghanean Criminal Code (Amendment). Act (2007). Section 69A (1) and (2).Google Scholar
  11. IPU. Legislation and other national provisions: Cameroon, Canada, Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Chad, Congo, Cote d’Ivoire, Cyprus. Retrieved, from http://www.ipu.org/wmn-e/fgm-prov-c.htm
  12. Kandala, N. B., & Komba, P. N. (2015). Geographic variation of female genital mutilation and legal enforcement in Sub-Saharan Africa: a case study of Senegal. The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 92(4), 838–847.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  13. Kitui, B. (2012). Female genital mutilation in South Africa. Retrieved, from https://africlaw.com/2012/06/07/female-genital-mutilation-in-south-africa/
  14. LHRC Report. (2008). Legal and Human Rights Centre Tanzania human rights report 2008: Progress through human rights. Retrieved, from http://www.mcdgc.go.tz/data/Tanzania_human_rights_report_2008_-_women_s_rights.pdf
  15. LHRC Report. (2012). Evaluation of Legal and Human Rights Centre (LHRC) in Tanzania.Google Scholar
  16. Mackie, G., Moneti, F., Denny, E., & Shakya, H. (2012). ‘What are social norms. How are they measured?’ UNICEF/ UCSD centre on global justice project cooperation agreement working paper 1. San Diego, CA: University of California. Available at http://bit.ly/1o8gf8c.Google Scholar
  17. Martelli, M., & Olle-Goig, J. E. (2012). Female genital mutilation in Djibouti. African Health Sciences, 12(4), 412–415.Google Scholar
  18. Masriya, A. (2016 August 29). Egypt’s cabinet approves amendments to law against FGM. Retrieved, from http://allafrica.com/stories/201608290760.html
  19. Midgley, R., Loubser, M., & Mukheibir, A. (2011). Law of delict in South Africa. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  20. Nainar V. (2012). op. cit. p. 6 and mutilation. Retrieved, from https://www.hsph.harvard.edu/population/fgm/congo.penalcode.40.pdf
  21. Ras-Work, B. (2009). Legislation to address the issue of Female Genitial Mutilation (FGM), UN Report.Google Scholar
  22. Shell-Duncan, B., Hernlund, Y., Wander, K., & Moreau, A. (2014). Legislating change? Responses to criminalization of female genital cutting in Senegal. Law and Society Review, 47(4), 803–835.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Snyman, C. R. (2008). Criminal law (5th ed.). New York, NY: Lexis Nexis.Google Scholar
  24. Tanzania Sexual Offences Special Provisions Act. (1998). (See Act No. 4 of 1998), 1 July 1998 (Section 21).Google Scholar
  25. Thompson, B. (1999). The criminal law of Sierra Leone. Lanham, MD: University Press of America.Google Scholar
  26. UNFPA-UNICEF. Burkina Faso has a strong law against FGM. C, but wining minds and hearts remain crucial. Retrieved, from https://www.unfpa.org/sites/default/files/resource-pdf/burkinafaso.pdf
  27. UNICEF. (2010a). Legislative Reform To Support the Abandonment of Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting. Retrieved, from https://www.unicef.org/policyanalysis/files/UNICEF_-_LRI_Legislative_Reform_to_support_the_Abandonment_of_FGMC_August_2010.pdf
  28. UNICEF. (2010b, November 18–19). Second academic consultation on social norms. New York, NY: UNICEF.Google Scholar
  29. United Nations. CEDAW/C/DJI/CO/1-3. Retrieved, from http://www2.ohchr.org/english/bodies/cedaw/docs/co/CEDAW-C-DJI-CO-1-3.pdf
  30. US Department of state (2009) Chad: Report on Female Genital Mutilation (FGM) or Female Genital Cutting (FGC). Retrieved from https://2001-2009.state.gov/g/wi/rls/rep/crfgm/10048.htmGoogle Scholar
  31. US State Department. (2011). Laws/Enforcement in Countries where FGM is Commonly Practiced. Retrieved, from https://2001-2009.state.gov/g/wi/rls/rep/9303.htm
  32. Waritay, J., & Wilson, A. M. (2012). Working to end female genital mutilation and cutting in Tanzania–the role and response of the church, commissioned by Tearfund.Google Scholar
  33. Wilson, G. (2016). Ending female genital mutilation in Burkina Faso through civil society. Newark, DE: UDSpace. Retrieved, from http://udspace.udel.edu/handle/19716/19629
  34. Winterbottom, A., Koomen, J., & Burford, G. (2009). Female genital cutting: Cultural rights and rites of defiance in Northern Tanzania: African Studies Review, 52(1), 47–71. http://www.jstor.org/stable/27667422.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ngianga-Bakwin Kandala
    • 1
  • Paul Nzinga Komba
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Mathematics Physics and Electrical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and EnvironmentNorthumbria UniversityNewcastle upon TyneUK
  2. 2.Wolfson CollegeCambridgeUK

Personalised recommendations