• Ngianga-Bakwin Kandala
  • Paul Nzinga Komba


The purpose of this book is to examine the law and practice on the issue of FGM around the world and to consider the underlying medical aspects of this issue. Its objective is, first, to consider the major avenues open to FGM victims bringing or likely to bring legal action against the state, which has stopped short of keeping them safe from the practices it has resolved to eliminate through law. Secondly, the book seeks to provide comprehensive, technical knowledge of the subject, combined with a working understanding of its practical legal framework and examination of underlying issues of principle and policy. Special emphasis is also placed on matters of the law governing the ban against the practice across the world, and the function of litigation procedure as a framework within which victims may seek relief, and on the importance of defences in an action against the State as well as FGM perpetrators.


  1. Mutangi, T. (2016). Litigation and advocacy tool. Litigating cases of harmful practices. Pretoria: Centre for Human Rights and Equality Now. Available at
  2. Nainar, V. (2012). Manual litigation strategies for sexual violence in Africa. Redress. Available at
  3. Rahman, A., & Toubia, N. (2000). Female genital mutilation: A guide to laws and policies worldwide. London: Zed Books.Google Scholar
  4. Samuel, Z. (2017). Female genital mutilation: Law and practice. London: Jordan Publishing.Google Scholar
  5. Shell-Duncan, B., Naik, R., & Feldman-Jacobs, C. (2016). A state-of-art synthesis of female genital mutilation/cutting: What do we know now? Evidence to end FGM/C: Research to help women thrive. New York: Population Council.
  6. Skaine, R. (2005). Female genital mutilation: Legal, cultural and medical issues. Jefferson, NC: McFarland.Google Scholar
  7. UNFPA. (2015). Demographic perspectives on female genital mutilation. New York: UNFPA.Google Scholar
  8. UNICEF (2010). Legislative reform to support the abandonment of female genital mutilation. August,
  9. UNICEF. (2013). Female genital mutilation/cutting: A statistical overview and exploration of the dynamics of change. New York: UNICEF.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ngianga-Bakwin Kandala
    • 1
  • Paul Nzinga Komba
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Mathematics Physics and Electrical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and EnvironmentNorthumbria UniversityNewcastle upon TyneUK
  2. 2.Wolfson CollegeCambridgeUK

Personalised recommendations