Advertisement

Heat, Fire, Electricity, Lightning, Radiation, and Gases

  • Reinhard B. Dettmeyer
Chapter

Abstract

The effects of heat, fire, electricity, lightning, radiation, and gases can produce a wide range of histopathological findings. For example, heat damage to the respiratory epithelium due to heat inhalation injury is as histopathologically detectable as is heat damage to the skin. Due to their characteristic histopathology, electrical burns can often only be identified as such using microscopy. The effects of a lightning strike manifest as burns to the skin and damage to internal organs in the form of microscopically detectable necrosis. Malignant hyperthermia, in contrast, is primarily considered to be a toxic reaction to foreign substances and, on its own, barely detectable using histopathology. Tissue damage following local exposure to radiation can be identified histopathologically. Tissue damage due to the inhalation of gases affects first and foremost lung tissue, e.g., following the inhalation of chlorine gas. Depending on survival time, secondary damage due to heat, fire, radiation, and/or gas exposure can be detected histopathologically; this damage is often highly relevant to the chances of survival.

References

  1. Abe M, Saitoh H, Sato Y, Hamaguchi K, Kiuchi M (2001) Immunohistochemical study of the kidneys after severe muscular injury. Int J Legal Med 114:232–236PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Allen GC, Brubaker CL (1998) Human malignant hyperthermia associated with desflurane anaesthesia. Anaesth Analg 86:1328–1331Google Scholar
  3. Anders S, Schulz F, Tsokos M (2000) Intramuskuläre Hämorrhagien bei letaler suizidaler Strombeibringung. In: 9th spring meeting of the German society of forensic medicine – northern region, Leipzig, Germany, 4–5 May 2000Google Scholar
  4. Anders S, Matschke J, Tsokos M (2001) Internal current mark in a case of suicide by electrocution. Am J Forensic Med Pathol 22:370–373PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bakovic M, Nestic M, Mayer D (2016) Suicidal chemistry: combined intoxication with carbon monoxide and formic acid. Int J Legal Med 130:723–729PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Banaschak S, Milbradt H, Humpert M, Roll P, Madea B (2001) Zum Nachweis der Anwendung von Elektroschockgeräten. Arch Kriminol 208:149–158PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Baroldi G, Silver MD, Parolini M, Pomara C, Turillazzi E, Fineschi V (2005) Myofiber break-up: a marker of ventricular fibrillation in sudden cardiac death. Int J Cardiol 100:435–441PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Beal SM (1983) Some epidemiological factors about sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) in South Australia. In: Tildon JT, Roeder LM, Steinschneider A (eds) Sudden infant death syndrome. Academic, New York, pp 15–28Google Scholar
  9. Bellini E, Gambassi G, Nucci G, Benvenuti M, Landi G, Gabbrielli M, Vanezis P (2016) Death by electrocution: histological technique for copper detection on the electric mark. Forensic Sci Int 264:24–27PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bergeder HD (1963) Grundlagen der biologischen Strahlenwirkung und Strahlenschäden. Ergebn Allgem Path 42:1Google Scholar
  11. Böhm E (1967a) Differentialdiagnostisch bedeutsame Unterschiede zwischen Strom- und Wärmemarken. Dtsch Z Gesamte Gerichtl Med 61:128–136PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Böhm E (1967b) Untersuchungen über die Gestalt oberflächlicher Metallisationen der Haut. Dtsch Z Gesamte Gerichtl Med 59:26–34PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Böhm E (1968a) Die Versilberungsmethode nach Timm als Nachweisreaktion für elektrische Metallisation. Dtsch Z Gesamte Gerichtl Med 62:26–31PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Böhm E (1968b) Zur Frage der Differentialdiagnose zwischen thermischen und elektrischen Verbrennungen. Dtsch Z Gesamte Gerichtl Med 63:149–153PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Bohnert M (2004) Morphological findings in burned bodies. In: Tsokos M (ed) Forensic pathology reviews, vol I. Humana, Totowa, pp 3–27CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Bohnert M, Werner CR, Pollak S (2003) Problems associated with the diagnosis of vitality in burned bodies. Forensic Sci Int 135:197–205PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Bohnert M, Anderson J, Rothschild MA, Böhm J (2010) Immunohistochemical expression of fibronection in the lungs of fire victims proves intravital reaction in fatal burns. Int J Legal Med 124:583–588PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Brinkmann B, Püschel K (1977) Zur Histomorpologie der Herz- und Skelettmuskulatur bei maligner Hyperthermie. Z Rechtsmed 80:117–133PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Brinkmann B, Püschel K (1978) Heat injuries to the respiratory system. Virchows Arch A Pathol Anat Histol 379:299–311PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Brinkmann B, Kleiber M, Koops E, Püschel K (1979) Vitale Reaktionen bei akutem Verbrühungstod. Z Rechtsmed 83:1–16PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Britt BA, Web GE, LeDuc C (1974) Malignant hyperthermia induced by curare. Can Anaesth Soc J 21:371–375PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Castren JA, Kytila J (1963) Eye symptoms caused by lightning stroke. Acta Ophthalmol 41:139–143Google Scholar
  23. Chan YF, Sivasamboo R (1972) Lightning accidents in pregnancy. J Obstet Gynaecol Br Commonw 79:761–762PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Cooper MA (1980) Lightning injuries: prognostic signs for death. Ann Emerg Med 9:134–138PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Cox RA, Mlcak RP, Chinkes DL, Jacob S, Enkhbaatar P, Jaso J, Parish LP, Traber DL, Jeschke ML, Herndon DN, Hawkins HK (2008) Upper airway mucus deposition in lung tissue of burn trauma victims. Shock 29:356–361PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Danielsen L, Thomsen HK, Nielsen O, Aalund O, Nielsen KG, Karlsmark T, Genefke IK (1978) Electrical and thermal injuries in pig skin-evaluated and compared by light microscopy. Forensic Sci Int 12:211–225PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Denborough MA, Lovell RRH (1960) Anaesthetic deaths in a family. Lancet 2:45CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Dettmeyer R, Preuß J, Madea B (2007) 4 Tage überlebter Blitzschlag nach erfolgreicher Renanimation. 15th spring meeting of the German society of forensic medicine, Hamburg, GermanyGoogle Scholar
  29. Drüner HE, Grözinger KH (1972) Streß-Ulzera nach Verbrennungen. Med Welt 23:707PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Fineschi V, D’Errico S, Neri M, Panarese F, Ricci P, Turillazzi E (2005) Heat stroke in an incubator: an immunohistochemical study in a fatal case. Int J Legal Med 119:94–97PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Fineschi V, Karch SB, D’Errico S, Pomara C, Riezzo I, Turillazzi E (2006) Cardiac pathology in death from electrocution. Int J Legal Med 120:79–82PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Fish R (1993a) Electric shock. Part I: nature and mechanisms of injury. J Emerg Med 11:309–312PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Fish R (1993b) Electric shock. Part II: nature and mechanisms of injury. J Emerg Med 11:457–462PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Foerster A (1932) Über Veränderungen der Luftröhrenschleimhaut bei Verbrannten. Dtsch Z Gesamte Gerichtl Med 19:293–301Google Scholar
  35. Foerster A (1933) Experimentelle Untersuchungen über Veränderungen an den Atmungsorganen bei plötzlicher Einwirkung hoher Temperaturen. Dtsch Z Gesamte Gerichtl Med 20:445–461Google Scholar
  36. Foerster A (1934) Mikroskopische Untersuchungen über das Verhalten der Alveolen bei Verbrannten. Dtsch Z Gesamte Gerichtl Med 23:281–288Google Scholar
  37. Fracasso T, Schmeling A (2011) Delayed asphyxia due to inhalation injury. Int J Legal Med 125(2):289–292PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Fracasso T, Pfeiffer H, Michaud K, Köhler H, Sauerland C, Schmeling A (2011) Immunohistochemical expression of fibronection and C5b-9 in the myocardium in cases of monoxide poisoning. Int J Legal Med 125:377–384PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Franzius C, Meyer-Hofmann H, Lison AE (1997) Myokardinfarkt und Rhabdomyolyse nach einem Hochspannungsunfall mit erfolgreicher Reanimation. Dtsch Med Wochenschr 122:400–406PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Gehrmann G, Schäfer EL, Wunder M (1963) Klinische und radiologische Befunde bei Thorotrastschädigungen. Dtsch Med Wochenschr 88:2050PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Goldbach HJ (1956) Gibt es vitale Reaktionen der Lunge nach Heißlufteinatmung? Dtsch Z Gesamte Gerichtl Med 45:394PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Gormsen H, Jeppesen N, Lund A (1984) The causes of death in fire victims. Forensic Sci Int 24:107–111PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Gronert GA (1980) Malignant hyperthermia. Anesthesiology 53:395–423PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Hieda Y, Tsujino Y, Xue Y, Takayama K, Fujihara J, Kimura K, Dekio S (2004) Skin analysis following dermal exposure to kerosene in rats: the effects of post-mortem exposure and fire. Int J Legal Med 118:41–46PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Imaizumi K, Taniguchi K, Ogawa Y (2014) DNA survival and physical and histological properties of heat-induced alterations in burnt bones. Int J Legal Med 128:439–446PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Jacobsen H (1997) Electrically induced deposition of metal on the human skin. Forensic Sci Int 90:85–92PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. James TN, Riddick L, Embry JH (1990) Cardiac abnormalities demonstrated post-mortem in four cases of accidental electrocution and their potential significance relative to nonfatal electrical injuries of the heart. Am Heart J 120:143–157PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Janssen W (1977) Forensische Histologie. Schmidt-Römhild, LübeckGoogle Scholar
  49. Janssen W (1984) Injuries caused by heat and cold. In: Janssen W (ed) Forensic histopathology. Springer, New York, pp 234–260CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Kahn A, Wacholder A, Winkler M, Rebuffat E (1990) Prospective study on the prevalence of sudden infant death and possible risk factors in Brussels: preliminary results (1987–1988). Eur J Pediatr 149:284–286PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Karger B, Teige K (2002) Fatal malignant hyperthermia – delayed onset and atypical course. Forensic Sci Int 129:187–190PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Karger B, Suggeler O, Brinkmann B (2002) Electrocution – autopsy study with emphasis on “electrical petechiae”. Forensic Sci Int 126:210–213PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Keil W, Yoshida H, Ishiyama I (1984) Untersuchungen zur Wirkung von Elektrizität auf den Myoglobingehalt humaner Herz- und Skelettmuskulatur. Z Rechtsmed 91:185–193PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Kibayashi K, Shojo H (2003) Heat-induced immunoreactivity of tau protein in neocortical neurons of fire fatalities. Int J Legal Med 117:282–286PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Kibayashi K, Nakao K, Shojo H (2009) Hyperthermia combined with ethanol administration induces c-fos expression in the central amygdaloid nucleus of the mouse brain. A possible mechanism of heatstroke under the influence of ethanol intake. Int J Legal Med 123:371–379PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Koeppen S (1965) Personenschäden durch Blitzeinwirkung. Med Klin 60(35):1390–1394PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Kowall-Vern A, Goral J, Gamelli RL, McGill V, Clancy J (2000) Hsp 70, Hsp 32, and Grp 78 are increased in thermally injured skin with and without antithrombin (human) concentrate infusion. J Burn Care Rehabil 21:213–219CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Krauland W (1951) Schäden und Todesfälle durch Blitzschlag. Dtsch Z Gesamte Gerichtl Med 40:298–312PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Ku CS, Lin SL, Hsu TL, Wang SP, Chang MS (1989) Myocardial damage associated with electrical injury. Am Heart J 118:621–624PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Lederer W, Wiedermann FJ, Baubin MA, Kroesen G (2002) Blitzschlagverletzung und kardiopulmonale Reanimation. Notfall & Rettungsmedizin 5:474–479CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Lichtenberg R, Dries D, Ward K, Marshall W, Scanlon P (1993) Cardiovascular effects of lightning strikes. J Am Coll Cardiol 21:531–536PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Maresch W (1973) Maligne hyperthermie. Beitr Gerichtl Med 30:289–296PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Marschall S, Rothschild MA, Bohnert M (2006) Expression of heat-shock protein 70 (HSP 70) in the respiratory tract and lungs of fire victims. Int J Legal Med 120:355–359PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. McCaninch J, Matter P, Lynch JB, Lewis SR, Blocker TG (1964) Renal pathophysiology in severe burns: five year review of kidney pathology in fatal burns. Tex Rep Biol Med 22:348Google Scholar
  65. Multhoff G (2002) Activation of natural killer cells by heat shock protein 70. Int J Hyperth 18:576–585CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Myers SL, Williams JM, Hodges JS (1999) Effects of extreme heat on teeth with implications for histologic processing. J Forensic Sci 44:805–809PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Ng’walali PM, Kibayashi K, Yonemitsu K, Ohtsu Y, Tsunenari S (1998) Death as a result of heat stroke in a vehicle: an adult case in winter confirmed with reconstruction and animal experiments. J Clin Forensic Med 5:183–186PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Oehlert W (1970) Pathologische Veränderungen in Organen und Geweben nach Applikation von Radioisotopen und Kontrastmitteln. Langenbecks Arch Chir 327:229PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Oesterhelweg L, Kaufmann R, Hornborstel G, Bostelmann J, Schulz F, Püschel K (2006) Todesfälle im Zusammenhang mit Biogas. Kriminalistik 10:594–598Google Scholar
  70. Olbrycht J (1927) Mikroskopische Untersuchungen von Lungen verbrannter Neugeborener zum Nachweis ihres Gelebthabens, nebst Bemerkungen über die forensische Bedeutung der histologischen Lungenprobe. Dtsch Z Gesamte Gerichtl Med 9:529Google Scholar
  71. Olbrycht J, Ramult M (1924) Der Einfluß der Verbrühung, des anaphylaktischen Schocks und der parenteralen Zufuhr verschiedener Eiweißstoffe auf das histologische Bild der Nebennieren. Dtsch Z Gesamte Gerichtl Med 3:401Google Scholar
  72. Pinchuk VM (1964) Morphological changes of the kidneys during the first period of burn. Arch Path (Mosk) 26(6):40Google Scholar
  73. Pioch W (1966a) Die histochemische Untersuchung thermischer Hautschäden und ihre Bedeutung für die forensische Praxis. Schmidt-Römhild, LübeckGoogle Scholar
  74. Pioch W (1966b) L’image histologique des lèsions vitales et post-mortem causèes par brûlures. Extrait des Acta Medicinæ Legalis et Socialis XIX:327–333Google Scholar
  75. Pioch W (1966c) Histologisch-histochemische Untersuchungen zur Identifizierung von Strommarken. Dtsch Z Gesamte Gerichtl Med 57:165–169PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Pioch W (1967) Zur Diagnostik polytypischer Strommarken. Vorträge im Landeskriminalpolizeiamt Niedersachsen (Sonderdruck) Naturwissenschaftliche Kriminalistik, p 39–48Google Scholar
  77. Pioch W (1968) Zur gerichtsmedizinischen Untersuchung von Tötungsdelikten durch elektrischen Strom. Arch Kriminol 142:143–152Google Scholar
  78. Pircher R, Pollak S, Vogt S, Epting T, Kramer L, Geisenberger D (2016) A special type of scald caused by prolonged exposure to slowly heated water. Forensic Sci Int 263:158–163PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Püschel K, Brinkmann B (1978) Tod durch maligne Hyperthermie. Ätiologie, Pathophysiologie, Epidemiologie und Pathomorphologie. Med Welt 29:522–531PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Quan L, Zhu BL, Oritani S, Ishida K, Fujita MQ, Maeda H (2001) Intranuclear ubiquitin immunoreactivity in the pigmented neurons of the substantia nigra in fire fatalities. Int J Legal Med 114:310–315PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Reed GB, Cox AJ (1966) The human liver after radiation injury. A form of veno-occlusive disease. Am J Path 48:597PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  82. Rees WD (1965) Pregnant woman struck by lightning. Br Med J 1:103–104PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Reh H (1960) Spättod nach Einwirkung von Kontaktwärme (55-60°C) auf die Haut in einem Heißluftbad, zugleich ein Beitrag zur pathologischen Anatomie der Verbrennungskrankheit. Dtsch Z Gesamte Gerichtl Med 49:703Google Scholar
  84. Riße M, Weiler G (1984) Heroin addiction as a rare cause of symmetrical necrosis of the globus pallidus. Z Rechtsmed 93:227–235PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Riße M, Türker T, Weiler G (1998) Postmortale Differentialdiagnose und forensische Relevanz kutaner Blasenbildungen. Rechtsmedizin 8:141–146CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Rohde MC, Corydon TJ, Hansen J, Pedersen CB, Schmidt SP, Gregersen N, Banner J (2013) Heat stress and sudden infant death syndrome – stress gene expression after exposure to moderate heat stress. Forensic Sci Int 232:16–24PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Saukko P, Knight B (2004) Knight’s forensic pathology, 3rd edn. Edward Arnold, London, pp 319–331Google Scholar
  88. Schollmeyer W (1961) Zur histologischen Differentialdiagnose der Hautblasen nach Hitzeeinwirkung und nach Barbituratvergiftung. Dtsch Z Gesamte Gerichtl Med 51:180Google Scholar
  89. Schollmeyer W (1962) Zur Frage der Fettembolie des Lungengewebes bei postmortal Verbrannten. Acta Med Leg Soc 15:77Google Scholar
  90. Schwerd W, Höchel K (1966) Vortäuschung von Strommarken. Arch Kriminol 138:1–7Google Scholar
  91. Shoji T (1997) Demonstration of heat shock protein, ubiquitin, in fire death autopsy cases by immunohistochemical study (in Japanese). Nippon Hoigaku Zasshi 51:70–76PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. Sochor FM, Mallory KG (1963) Lung lesions in patients dying of burns. Arch Pathol 75:303PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. Steiner D, Brinkmann B (1974) Mitursächlichkeit eines Thorotrastschadens bei Tod durch stumpfe Gewalt. Z Rechtsmed 75:213PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Stolt FD (2005) Stromtodesfälle. Kriminalistik 5:297–299Google Scholar
  95. Stütz N, Weiss D, Reichert B (2006) Verletzungen durch Blitzschlag. Unfallchirurg 109:495–498PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Takamiya M, Saigusa K, Nakayashiki N, Aoki Y (2001) A histological study on the mechanism of epidermal nuclear elongation in electrical and burn injuries. Int J Legal Med 115:152–157PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Thurner J (1970) Iatrogene Pathologie. Urban & Schwarzenberg, München Berlin WienGoogle Scholar
  98. Tsay HJ, Li HY, Lin CH, Yang YL, Yeh JY, Lin MT (1999) Heatstroke induces c-fos expression in the rat hypothalamus. Neurosci Lett 262:41–44PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Uemura K, Harada K, Sadamitsu D, Tsuruta R, Takahashi M, Aki T, Yasuhara M, Maekawa T, Yoshida K (2001) Apoptotic and necrotic brain lesions in a fatal case of carbon monoxide poisoning. Forensic Sci Int 116:213–219PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Üzün I, Akyildiz E, Akif Inanici M (2008) Histopathological differentiation of skin lesions caused by electrocution, flame burns and abrasion. Forensic Sci Int 178:157–161PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Vianello F (1997) A man in the thunderstorm: coronary injuries and electric shock. Cardiology 8:486CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Villiers AJ, Gross P (1967) Radiation pneumonitis X-ray induced lesions in hamsters and rats. Arch Environ Health 15:650PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Wankhede GA, Sariya DR (2006) An electrocution by metal kite line. Forensic Sci Int 163:141–143PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Weiler G, Riße M (1985) Tötung durch elektrischen Strom in der Badewanne. Beweisführung durch eine geformte lokale sowie eine lineare Strommarke. Arch Kriminol 176:82–88PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. Weis A, Bohnert M (2008) Expression patterns of adhesion molecules P-selectin, von Willebrand factor and PECAM-1 in lungs. A comparative study in cases of burn shock and hemorrhagic shock. Forensic Sci Int 175:102–106PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Werthemann A (1930) Experimentelle Röntgenschädigung des Herzmuskels. Strahlentherapie 38:702Google Scholar
  107. Westman J, Sharma HS (1998) Heat shock protein response in the central nervous system following hyperthermia. Prog Brain Res 115:207–239PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Wilske J (1984) Der plötzliche Säuglingstod (SIDS). Springer, BerlinCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Wong HR, Ryan M, Mendez IY, Denenberg A, Wispe JR (1997) Heat shock protein induction protects human respiratory epithelium against nitric-oxide-mediated cytotoxicity. Shock 8:213–218PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Wright RK, Davis JH (1980) The investigation of electrical deaths: a report of 20 fatalities. J Forensic Sci 25:514–521PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Xenopoulos N, Movahed A, Hudson P, Reeves WC (1991) Myocardial injury in electrocution. Am Heart J 122:1481–1484PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Yoshida C, Ishikawa T, Michiue T, Quan L, Maeda H (2011) Postmortem biochemistry and immunohistochemistry of chromogranin a as a stress marker with special regard to fatal hypothermia and hyperthermia. Int J Legal Med 125:11–20CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. Yost JW, Holmes FF (1974) Myoglobinuria following lightning stroke. JAMA 228:1147–1148PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Zack F, Hammer U, Klett I, Wegener R (1997) Myocardial injury due to lightning. Int J Legal Med 110:326–328PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Zack F, Raphael T, Kupfer J, Jokuszies A, Vogt PM, Büttner A, Püschel K, Schalke B, Todt M, Dettmeyer R (2013) Four fatalities due to lightning on a golf course. Rechtsmedizin 23:114–118CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Zhang P, Cai S (1995) Study on electrocution death by low voltage. Forensic Sci Int 76:115–119PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Zhu BL, Oritami S, Nagai K, Imura M, Fukita K, Maeda H (1997) Immunohistochemical investigation of pulmonary surfactant in fatalities due to fire. Legal Med 1997:405–407Google Scholar
  118. Zhu BL, Ishida K, Oritani S, Quan L, Taniguchi M, Li DR, Fujita MO, Maeda H (2001a) Immunohistochemical investigation of pulmonary surfactant-associated protein a in fire victims. Legal Med 3:23–28PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Zhu BL, Ishida K, Quan L, Taniguchi M, Oritani Y, Kamikodai Y, Fujita MQ, Maeda H (2001b) Postmortem urinary myoglobin levels with reference to the causes of death. Forensic Sci Int 115:183–188PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Zinck KH (1940) Pathologische Anatomie der Verbrennung. Veröffentlichungen aus der Konstitutions- und Wehrpathologie. Fischer, Jena, zit nach: Janssen 1977Google Scholar
  121. Zollinger HU (1960) Radio-histologie und radio-histopathologie. In: Handb d Allgem Path 10, Teil 1:127. Springer, BerlinGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Reinhard B. Dettmeyer
    • 1
  1. 1.University Hospital Giessen Institute of Forensic MedicineGiessenGermany

Personalised recommendations