Arterial Wall Properties in Men and Women: Hemodynamic Analysis and Clinical Implications

  • John K.-J. LiEmail author
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 1065)


The properties of arterial walls are dictated by their underlying structure, which is responsible for the adequate perfusion of conduit branching arteries and their vascular beds. Beginning with the mechanobiology of arteries in terms of their composition and individual contributions to overall viscoelastic behavior in men and women, pressure–flow relations are analyzed and noted in terms of sex differences. Hemodynamic function in terms of indices of vascular stiffness—such as pressure–strain elastic modulus, pulse wave velocity, augmentation index, and cardio–ankle vascular index—are evaluated. They all showed differences between the sexes, and these differences also were shown among people of different cultures. Recent studies also showed, in heart failure patients, a comparatively greater increase in peripheral resistance and a greater decreased arterial compliance in women. Wave separation into forward and reflected waves allows elucidation of mechanical and drug-treated similarities and differences in induced hypertension. This may provide insight into treatment strategy in terms of improving mechanobiology and designing drug therapy for the sexes. Finally, modeling studies are useful in identifying how arterial compliance and its pressure dependence can be better used in differentiating aging- and hypertension-induced changes that differentially affect the sexes.


Vascular mechanics Hemodynamic monitoring Pulse waveform analysis Arterial compliance Mechanobiology Sex differences 


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© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Biomedical EngineeringRutgers UniversityPiscatawayUSA

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