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Surface Macronutrient Dynamics of the Drake Passage and the Argentine Sea

  • Flavio E. Paparazzo
  • José L. Esteves
Chapter

Abstract

The dynamics of macronutrients on the surface is key for marine life. In this work, we focus on the nitrate, phosphate, and silicate distribution along the Drake Passage and the Argentine Sea. These nutrients have the highest concentration in the south of the Drake Passage because of upwelling of deep waters and inlets of coastal currents. The Antarctic Convergence forms a kind of barrier between water masses, greatly limiting the surface exchange of chemical species to the north. Pacific Ocean waters mixed with surface waters located north of the Polar Front enter the Argentine Sea giving rise to the Patagonian and Malvinas Currents. On their way, primary producers deplete nutrients, and, at a given moment, nitrate reaches limiting concentrations. Two processes locally modify the resulting N-S nutrient gradient: (1) the shelf offshore component receives the contribution of the nutrient-rich Antarctic waters, which move northward along the continental slope through the Malvinas Current; (2) large tidal waves and their interaction with the seabed create seasonal frontal systems that increase the chemical species concentration near the coast. The discharge of the less saline waters of the Magallanes Strait can be observed up to 43°S, but its effect on macronutrients is low. Patagonian rivers present a low flow and seem to make only local contributions. Until now, the fertilization effect of submarine groundwater discharge is unknown and the aeolian dust input is under study. The ice pack coverage in the Drake Passage and the water column stratification in the Argentine Sea govern the seasonal variation. Interannual differences have been associated with ENSO-like events, but information is not enough to draw conclusions. Due to the importance of knowing the nutrient dynamics to understand the biological processes of the region, multidisciplinary studies focusing on this topic should be promoted.

Keywords

Macronutrients Currents Fronts Drake Passage Argentine Sea 

Notes

Acknowledgments

An important part of this study was based on our work in the framework of a cooperative research program (ARGAU, Programme de Coopération avec la ARGentine pour l’étude de l’océan Atlantique AUstral) between the Laboratoire de Biogéochimie et Chimie Marines at the Université Pierre et Marie Curie in Paris (France), the Instituto Antártico Argentino and the Servicio de Hidrografía Naval Argentina from 2001 to 2004. We would like to thank I. Schloss for allowing us to participate in the program, as well as V. Alder for her valuable help in the interpretation of oceanographic information.

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Laboratorio de Oceanografía Química y Contaminación de Aguas (LOQyCA), Centro para el Estudio de Sistemas Marinos (CESIMAR), Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET)Puerto MadrynArgentina
  2. 2.Laboratorio de Oceanografía Biológica (LOBio), Centro para el Estudio de Sistemas Marinos (CESIMAR), Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET)Puerto MadrynArgentina

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