Advertisement

Overview of the History of Biological Oceanography in the Southwestern Atlantic, with Emphasis on Plankton

  • Demetrio Boltovskoy
  • Jean L. Valentin
Chapter

Abstract

The first data on the biological features of the Southwestern Atlantic were the result of European expeditions of the eighteenth to nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Around the 1920s to 1940s, European-born specialists and their local disciples started playing a central role, and locally produced knowledge grew consistently. Early surveys centered on inventorial and distributional aspects of the flora and fauna, in particular mollusks and fishes, followed by community-level investigations including causal relationships with oceanographic settings (water masses, temperature, salinity, nutrients), red-tide outbursts, prospection of fishing grounds, etc. In Argentina, logistical support for the oceanographic cruises was historically associated with the Naval Hydrographic Service and in Brazil with the Brazilian Navy and the Universities of São Paulo and Rio Grande do Sul. As of 2017, in both these countries, there are >30 teaching and/or research institutions totally or partly dedicated to marine studies. Presently, knowledge of the taxonomy and biogeography of the plankton of the Southwestern Atlantic varies greatly among taxa, but several aspects (e.g., vertical distribution patterns, seasonal and especially multiannual variations, life histories, and many others) have received very little attention. Despite limited financial support and adequate floating platforms and equipment, lack of coordinated efforts, and political turbulences, the scientific output of Argentina, and especially Brazil, has grown in the last two decades, doubling from ~1.2% of the world total in 1996 to ~2.4% in 2016.

Keywords

Plankton Knowledge history Argentina Brazil Southwestern Atlantic 

References

  1. Aiken J, Rees N, Hooker S et al (2000) The Atlantic meridional transect: overview and synthesis of data. Prog Oceanogr 45:257–312CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Angelescu V, Sánchez RP (1995) A century of oceanographic and fisheries exploration on the continental shelf off Argentina. Helgoländer Meeresun 49:467–487CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Angelescu V, Sánchez RP (1997) Exploraciones oceanográficas y pesqueras en el Mar Argentino y la región adyacente del Atlántico Sudoccidental (años 1874–1993). In: Boschi EE (ed) El Mar Argentino y sus recursos pesqueros, INIDEP, Mar del Plata (Argentina), p 11–64Google Scholar
  4. Appeltans W, Ahyong ST, Anderson G et al (2012) The magnitude of global marine species diversity. Curr Biol 22:2189–2202CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Balech E (1971) Notas historicas y criticas de la oceanografia biológica argentina. Publicación del Servicio de Hidrografía Naval (Argentina), H1027:1–57Google Scholar
  6. Balech E (1976) Historia de la biología marina en la Argentina. In: Alvarez JA (ed) Evolución de las ciencias en la República Argentina 1923–1972. Sociedad Científica Argentina, Buenos Aires, pp 84–94Google Scholar
  7. Bjornberg TKS (1954) Nota prévia sobre a ocorrência de tornarias na costa sul do Brasil. Arq Mus Par 10:345–348Google Scholar
  8. Bjornberg TKS, Forneris L (1955) Resultados científicos do cruzeiro do “Baependi” e do “Vega” a Ilha da Trindade. Copelata I. Contribuição avulsa do Instituto Oceanográfico 1:1–68Google Scholar
  9. Boltovskoy D (1979) Zooplankton of the South–Western Atlantic. S Afr J Sci 75:541–544Google Scholar
  10. Boltovskoy D (ed) (1981) Atlas del zooplancton del Atlántico Sudoccidental y métodos de trabajo con el zooplancton marino. Instituto Nacional de Investigación y Desarrollo Pesquero (INIDEP), Mar del Plata (Argentina)Google Scholar
  11. Boltovskoy D (1999a) Diversidad y biogeografía del zooplancton del Atlántico Sur. Anales de la Academia Nacional de Ciencias Exactas. Físicas y Naturales (Argentina) 51:111–136Google Scholar
  12. Boltovskoy D (ed) (1999b) South Atlantic zooplankton. Backhuys Publishers, Leiden, pp 1–1705Google Scholar
  13. Boltovskoy D (ed) (2008) Atlas de sensibilidad ambiental de la costa y el Mar Argentino. Secretaría de Ambiente y Desarrollo Sustentable, Buenos AiresGoogle Scholar
  14. Boltovskoy D (2015) Capítulo 3. Biología de sistemas. In: Depetris P, Rossi R, Tirao J, Charreau E, Cignoli R, Mariscotti M, Vallés E (eds) Estado y perspectivas de las ciencias exactas, físicas y naturales en la Argentina. Academia Nacional de Ciencias (Córdoba) & Academia Nacional de Ciencias Exactas, Físicas y Naturales, Buenos AiresGoogle Scholar
  15. Boltovskoy D, Correa N, Boltovskoy A (2003) Marine zooplanktonic diversity: a view from the South Atlantic. Oceanol Acta 25:271–278CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Boltovskoy D, Correa N, Boltovskoy A (2005) Diversity and endemism in cold waters of the South Atlantic: contrasting patterns in the plankton and the benthos. Sci Mar 69:17–26CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Bonecker ACT (ed) (2006) Atlas de zooplâncton da região central da Zona Econômica Exclusiva brasileira. Museu Nacional, Rio de JaneiroGoogle Scholar
  18. Bonecker ACT, de Castro MS (eds) (2006) Atlas de larvas de peixes da região central da Zona Econômica Exclusiva brasileira. Museu Nacional, Rio de JaneiroGoogle Scholar
  19. Brandini FP, Lopes RM, Gutseit KS, Spach HL, Sassi R (1997) Planctonologia na plataforma continental do Brasil: Diagnose e revisão bibliográfica. MMA–CIRM–FEMAR (Brazil)Google Scholar
  20. Budiansky S (1984) Army pall over Argentine science. Nature 311:201–204CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Calliari D, Defeo O, Cervetto G et al (2003) Marine life of Uruguay: critical update and priorities for future research. Gayana 67:341–370Google Scholar
  22. Carreto JI, Montoya NG, Carignan MO et al (2016) Environmental and biological factors controlling the spring phytoplankton bloom at the Patagonian shelf–break front – degraded fucoxanthin pigments and the importance of microzooplankton grazing. Prog Oceanogr 146:1–21CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Castro BM, Miranda LB (1998) Physical oceanography of the western Atlantic continental shelf located between 4°N and 34°S. In: Robinson R, Brink KH (eds) The sea. Wiley, pp 209–251Google Scholar
  24. Ciocca DR, Delgado G (2017) The reality of scientific research in Latin America; an insider’s perspective. Cell Stress Chaperones 6:1–6Google Scholar
  25. Cunha AM, Fonseca O (1918) O microplâncton das costas meridionais do Brasil. Mem Inst O Cruz 10:99–103CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. de Vargas C, Audic S, Henry N et al (2015) Eukaryotic plankton diversity in the sunlit ocean. Science 348:1–11CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Deevey GB (1974) Pelagic ostracods collected on Hudson 70 between the equator and 55°S in the Atlantic. Proc Biol Soc Wash 87:351–380Google Scholar
  28. Ehrlich MD, Sánchez RP (1990) Lights and shadows in biological oceanography research in Argentina. A historical review. In: Lenz W, Deacon M (eds) Ocean sciences: their history and relation to man, Deutsche Hydrographische Zeitschrift. Bundesamt für Seeschiffahrt und Hydrographie, Hamburg, pp 481–498Google Scholar
  29. Faria JG (1914) Um ensaio sobre o plâncton, seguido de observações sobre a ocorrência de plâncton monótono, causando mortandade entre peixes na Baía do Rio de Janeiro. Dissertação de Livre Docência, Universidade do BrasilGoogle Scholar
  30. Faria JG, Cunha AM (1917) Estudos sobre o microplâncton da Baía do Rio de Janeiro e suas imediações. Mem Inst O Cruz 9:68–93CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Faria JG, Cunha AM, Pinto C (1922) Estudos sobre os protozoários do mar. Mem Inst O Cruz 15:186–200CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Fernandes LPC, Oliveira LL (eds) (2012) O Brasil e o mar no século XXI: Relatório aos tomadores de decisão do País. CEMBRA (Centro de Excelência para o Mar Brasileiro, Base de Hidrografia da Marinha), NiteroiGoogle Scholar
  33. Franco BC, Muelbert JH, Mata MM (2005) O ictioplâncton da quebra de plataforma da Região Sudeste–Sul do Brasil e sua relação com as condições ambientais. Ministério do Meio Ambiente (Brazil)Google Scholar
  34. Gaeta SA, Brandini FP (2006) Produção primária e fitoplâncton na região entre o Cabo de São Tomé (RJ) e o Chuí (RS). In: Rossi–Wongtschowski CLDB, Madureira LSP (eds) O ambiente oceanográfico da plataforma continental e do talude na região sudeste–sul do Brasil. EDUSP, São Paulo, pp 219–265Google Scholar
  35. Gibb SW, Barlow RG, Cummings DG et al (2000) Surface phytoplankton pigment distributions in the Atlantic Ocean:an assessment of basin scale variability between 50° N and 50° S. Prog Oceanogr 45:339–368CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Gomes EAT, Santos VS, Tenenbaum DR, Villac MC (2007) Protozooplankton characterization of two contrasting sites in a tropical coastal ecosystem (Guanabara Bay, RJ). Braz J Oceanogr.  https://doi.org/10.1590/S1679-87592007000100004
  37. Greze VN (ed) (1984) Bio–produktzionnaya sistema krupnomashtabnogo okeanicheskogo krugovorota [Bio–productive system of a large scale oceanic gyre]. Naukova Dumka, Kiev (USSR), pp 1–263 In RussianGoogle Scholar
  38. Hazin FHV (2009) Biomassa fitoplantônica, zooplanctônica, macro–zooplancton, Avaliação espacial e temporal do iclioplancton, estrutura da comunidade de larvas e de peixes e distribuição e abundância do ictioneuston. Programa Revizee – Score NE. Martins & Cordeiro, FortalezaGoogle Scholar
  39. Ishitani Y, Ujiié Y, Takishita K (2014) Uncovering sibling species in Radiolaria: evidence for ecological partitioning in a marine planktonic protist. Mol Phylogenet Evol 78:215–222CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Katsuragawa M, Muelbert JH, Dias JF (2006) O ictioplâncton na Região entre o Cabo de São Tomé (RJ) e o Chuí (RS). In: Rossi–Wongtschowski CLDB, Madureira LSP (eds) O ambiente oceanográfico da plataforma continental e do talude na região sudeste–sul do Brasil. EDUSP, São Paulo, pp 359–446Google Scholar
  41. Krug LC (ed) (2012) VIII Plano Setorial para os Recursos do Mar –PSRM. Formação de Recursos Humanos em Ciências do Mar: Estado da arte e Plano Nacional de Trabalho 2012–2015. Editora Textos, PelotasGoogle Scholar
  42. Kulagin DN, Stupnikova AN, al NTV (2014) Spatial genetic heterogeneity of the cosmopolitan chaetognath Eukrohnia hamata (Möbius, 1875) revealed by mitochondrial DNA. Hydrobiologia 721:197–207CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Lalli CM, Parsons TR (2007) Biological oceanography: an introduction. Elsevier Butterworth–Heinemann, AmsterdamGoogle Scholar
  44. Lopes RM (2007) Marine zooplankton studies in Brazil – a brief evaluation and perspectives. An Acad Bras Cienc.  https://doi.org/10.1590/S0001–37652007000300002
  45. Lopes RM, Castro BM (2013) Oceanography, ecology and management of Abrolhos Bank. Cont Shelf Res 70:1–2CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Lopes RM, Katsuragawa M, Dias JF et al (2006a) Zooplankton and ichthyoplankton distribution on the southern Brazilian shelf: an overview. Sci Mar 70:189–202CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Lopes RM, Montú MA, Gorri C et al (2006b) O zooplâncton marinho entre o Cabo de São Tomé (RJ) e o Chuí (RS). In: Rossi–Wongtschowski CLDB, Madureira LSP (eds) O ambiente oceanográfico da plataforma continental e do talude na região sudeste–sul do Brasil. EDUSP, São Paulo, pp 265–358Google Scholar
  48. López R (1976) La biología marina. In: Alvarez JA (ed) Evolución de las ciencias en la República Argentina 1923–1972. Sociedad Científica Argentina, Buenos AiresGoogle Scholar
  49. López Ambrosioni N (1976) La oceanografia en la Argentina. In: Alvarez JA (ed) Evolución de las ciencias en la República Argentina 1923–1972. Sociedad Científica Argentina, Buenos AiresGoogle Scholar
  50. Mesquita HSL, Fernandes AJ (1996) Variação de curta escala temporal de bactérias, picofitoplâncton e nanoheterótrofos na região de Ubatuba –SP, Brasil. Rev Bras Oceanogr 44:47–56CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Miloslavich P, Klein E, Diaz JM et al (2011) Marine biodiversity in the Atlantic and Pacific coasts of South America: knowledge and gaps. PLoS One 6:e14631CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  52. Ministério de Meio Ambiente (Brazil) (2006) Programa REVIZEE: avaliação do potencial sustentável de recursos vivos na zona econômica exclusiva. Relatório executivo. In: Ministério de Meio Ambiente. Secretaria da Qualidade Ambiental, BrasíliaGoogle Scholar
  53. Mora C, Tittensor DP, Adl S (2011) How many species are there on earth and in the ocean? PLoS Biol 9:e1001127CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  54. Morard R, Escarguel G, Weiner AKM et al (2016) Nomenclature for the nameless: a proposal for an integrative molecular taxonomy of cryptic diversity exemplified by planktonic foraminifera. Syst Biol 65:925–940CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Moreira da Silva PC (1971) Upwelling and its biological effects in southern Brazil. In: Costlow JD (ed) Fertility of the sea. Gordon & Breach, New York, pp 469–474Google Scholar
  56. Moreira da Silva PC (1973) A ressurgencia em Cabo Frio, vol 78. Publicação do Instituto de Pesquisa da Marinha, Rio de Janeiro, pp 1–56Google Scholar
  57. Müller–Melchers FC (1953) New and little known diatoms from Uruguay and the South Atlantic coast. Comunicaciones Botanicas del Museo de Historia Natural de Montevideo, 30:1–11Google Scholar
  58. Müller–Melchers FC (1957) Plankton diatoms of the Toko–Maru voyage (Brazil coast). Bol Inst Oceanogr 8:111–136CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Odebrecht C, Abreu PC (1995) Raphidophycean in southern Brazil. Harm Alg News 12:4Google Scholar
  60. Ogden JC, Podestá G, Zingone A et al (2004) Las ciencias del mar en la Argentina. Ciencia Hoy 13:211–228Google Scholar
  61. Oliveira LPH (1946) Estudos sobre o microplâncton capturado durante a viagem do navio oceanográfico Lahmeyer nas baías de Ilha Grande e Sepetiba. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 44:441–488CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Oliveira LPH (1947) Distribuição geográfica da fauna e flora da Baía de Guanabara. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 45:709–734CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Paiva Carvalho J (1945) Copépodos de Caiobá e Baia de Guaratuba. Arq Mus Par 4:83–116Google Scholar
  64. Paiva Carvalho J (1952) Sobre uma coleção de copepodos, não parasíticos, da Baía de Santos e suas adjacências. Bol Inst Ocean 8:111–136Google Scholar
  65. Penchaszadeh PE (ed) (2012) El Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales. Doscientos años. Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales, Buenos Aires (Argentina)Google Scholar
  66. Perillo GME (2015) Capítulo 8. Oceanografía. In: Depetris P, Rossi R, Tirao J, Charreau E, Cignoli R, Mariscotti M, Vallés E (eds) Estado y perspectivas de las ciencias exactas, físicas y naturales en la Argentina. Academia Nacional de Ciencias (Córdoba) & Academia Nacional de Ciencias Exactas, Físicas y Naturales, Buenos Aires, pp 307–348Google Scholar
  67. Ringuelet RA (1984) Breve reseña histórica de la ictiología argentina y uruguaya. In: Menni RC, Ringuelet RA, Aramburu RH (eds) Peces marinos de la Argentina y Uruguay. Hemisferio Sur, Buenos Aires, pp 3–8Google Scholar
  68. Rossi–Wongtschowski CLDB, Madureira LSP (eds) (2006) O ambiente oceanográfico da plataforma continental e do talude na região sudeste–sul do Brasil. Editora da Universidade de São Paulo, São PauloGoogle Scholar
  69. Sánchez RP (1991) Reseña de las investigaciones sobre ictioplancton marino en Argentina y Uruguay. Atlantica 13:215–231Google Scholar
  70. Santoferrara L, Alder V (2009) Abundance trends and ecology of planktonic ciliates of the South–Western Atlantic (35–63 S): a comparison between neritic and oceanic environments. J Plankton Res 31:837–851CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Santoferrara LF, Tian M, Alder VA et al (2015) Discrimination of closely related species in tintinnid ciliates: new insights on crypticity and polymorphism in the genus Helicostomella. Protist 166:78–92CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Santos VS, Villac MC, Tenenbaum DR et al (2007) Auto– and heterotrophic nanoplankton and filamentous bacteria of Guanabara Bay (RJ, Brazil): estimates of cell/filament numbers versus carbon contents. Braz J Oceanogr 55:133–143CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Scelzo MA, Penchaszadeh PE, Castello JP (2017) El Instituto de Biología Marina de Mar del Plata, Argentina (1960–1977). Aportes a su historia. ProBiota (Facultad de Ciencias Naturales y Museo, Universidad Nacional de La Plata), La Plata (Argentina):1–52Google Scholar
  74. Seeliger U, Kjerfve B (eds) (2001) Coastal marine ecosystems of Latin America. Springer, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  75. Seeliger U, Odebrecht C, Castello JP (eds) (1997) Subtropical convergence environments. The coast and sea in the Southwestern Atlantic. Springer, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  76. Seguin G (1965) Contribution à la connaissance du plancton des eaux cotières du Brésil (copépodes et amphipodes exceptés) et comparaison avec celui du Sénégal (Campagne de la Calypso, jan–fev 1961). Pelagos (Bulletin de l’Institut Océanographique, Alger) 2:5–44Google Scholar
  77. Servicio de Hidrografía Naval (1976) La Oceanografía en la República Argentina (1952–1975). Armada Argentina. Servicio de Hidrografía Naval, Buenos Aires, pp 5–395Google Scholar
  78. Sournia A, MJ C–D, Ricard M (1991) Marine phytoplankton: how many species in the world ocean? J Plankton Res 13:1093–1099CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Susini–Ribeiro SMM (1999) Biomass distribution of pico–, nano– and microplankton on the continental shelf of Abrolhos, East Brazil. ArchFish and MarRes 47:271–284Google Scholar
  80. Tabarelli M, Rocha CFD, Romanowski HP et al (eds) (2013) PELD–CNPq, Dez anos do Programa de pesquisas ecológicas de longa duração do Brasil: achados, lições e perspectivas. Editora Universitária da Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, RecifeGoogle Scholar
  81. Teixeira C, Gaeta S (1991) Contribution of picoplankton to primary production in estuarine, coastal and equatorial waters of Brazil. Hydrobiologia 209:117–122CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Teixeira C, Kutner MB (1961) Contribuição para conhecimento das diatomáceas da região de Cananeia. Bol Inst Ocean 3:131–187Google Scholar
  83. Tenenbaum DR (2006) Os Dinoflagelados e os Tintinídeos da região central da Zona Econômica Exclusiva brasileira: guia de identificação. Museu Nacional:1–36Google Scholar
  84. Valentin JL (1984) Spatial structure of the zooplankton community in the Cabo Frio region (Brazil) influenced by coastal upwelling. Hydrobiologia 113:183–191CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Valentin JL (2001) The Cabo Frio upwelling system, Brazil. In: Seeliger U, Kjerfve BJN (eds) Ecological studies: coastal marine ecosystems of Latin America. Springer, Berlin, pp 97–105CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Valentin JL (ed) (2006) Características hidrobiológicas da região central da Zona Econômica Exclusiva brasileira (Salvador, BA, ao Cabo São Tomé, RJ). IDEAL Gráfica e Editora, BrasiliaGoogle Scholar
  87. Valentin JL, Coutinho R (1990) Modelling maximum chlorophyll in the Cabo Frio (Brazil) upwelling: a preliminary approach. Ecol Model 52:1–11CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Valentin JL, Lins DA, Silva NM et al (1985) Les diatomées dans l'upwelling de Cabo Frio (Brésil): liste d’especes et étude écologique. J Plankton Res 7:313–337CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Valentin JL, WM M–R, Mureb MA (1987) Sur quelques zooplanctontes abondants dans l'upwelling de Cabo Frio (Brésil). J Plankton Res 9:1195–1216CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Valentin JL, Gaeta HL, Spach MA et al (1994) Oceanografia biológica – Plâncton. Diagnostico ambiental oceânico e costeiro das regiões sul e sudeste do Brasil., Rio de Janeiro. PETROBRAS. Rio de JaneiroGoogle Scholar
  91. Vannucci M (1949) Hydrozoa do Brasil. Boletim Zoologico da Universidade de São Paulo 99:219–265Google Scholar
  92. Vannucci M (1951a) Distribuição dos Hydrozoa até agora conhecidos nas costas do Brasil. Bol Inst Paul Ocean 2:105–124CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Vannucci M (1951b) Resultados científicos do cruzeiro do “Baependi” e do “Vega” a Ilha da Trindade. O gênero Firoloida, Prosobranchia Heteropoda. Bol Inst Paul Ocean 3:5–30CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Vannucci M, Hosoe K (1952) Resultados científicos do cruzeiro do “Baependi” e do “Vega” a Ilha da Trindade. Chaetognatha Bol Inst Paul Ocean 2:73–93CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Wood–Walker RS, Kingston KS, Gallienne CP (2001) Using neural networks to predict surface zooplankton biomass along a 50° N to 50° S transect of the Atlantic. J Plankton Res 23:875–888CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Wüst G (1964) The major deep–sea expeditions and research vessels 1873–1960. Progr Oceanogr 2:1–52CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Zimmermann SJC (1918) Contribuição ao estudo das diatomáceas dos Estados Unidos do Brasil. VIII Contribuição Brotéria 16:113–122Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Demetrio Boltovskoy
    • 1
  • Jean L. Valentin
    • 2
  1. 1.Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Instituto de Ecología, Genética y Evolución de Buenos Aires (IEGEBA), Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas–Universidad de Buenos Aires (CONICET – UBA)Buenos AiresArgentina
  2. 2.Departamento de Biologia Marinha, Instituto de BiologiaUniversidade Federal do Rio de JaneiroRio de JaneiroBrazil

Personalised recommendations