Scoring Systems

  • Gerda Meijler
  • Sylke J. Steggerda


In order to obtain insight into the severity of lesions and for better prognostication, it is recommended to apply a scoring system for GMH-IVH, CBH, PVE and PVL. These scoring systems are presented in Appendices 6.1, 6.2 and 6.3, respectively.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Volpe JJ (1989) Intraventricular hemorrhage in the premature infant—current concepts. Part II. Ann Neurol 25:109–116CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Steggerda SJ et al (2009) Cerebellar injury in preterm infants: incidence and findings on US and MR images. Radiology 252:190–199CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Parodi A et al (2015) Accuracy of ultrasound in assessing cerebellar haemorrhages in very low birthweight babies. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed 100(4):F289–F292CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Steggerda SJ, van Wezel-Meijler G (2016) Cranial ultrasound of the immature cerebellum: role and limitations. Semin Fetal Neonatal Med 21:295–304CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    van Wezel-Meijler G et al (1998) Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain in premature infants during the neonatal period. Normal phenomena and reflection of mild ultrasound abnormalities. Neuropediatrics 29:89–96CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    de Vries LS et al (1992) The spectrum of leukomalacia using cranial ultrasound. Behav Brain Res 49:1–6CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Further Reading

  1. Benders MJ et al (2014) Neuroimaging of white matter injury, intraventricular and cerebellar hemorrhage. Clin Perinatol 41:69–82CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Cowan FM, De Vries LS (2005) The internal capsule in neonatal imaging. Semin Fetal Neonatal Med 10:461–474CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. de Vries LS et al (1999) Asymmetrical myelination of the posterior limb of the internal capsule in infants with periventricular haemorrhagic infarction: an early predictor of hemiplegia. Neuropediatrics 30:314–319CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. de Vries LS et al (2015) Progress in neonatal neurology with a focus on neuroimaging in the preterm infant. Neuropediatrics 4:234–241Google Scholar
  5. Groenendaal F et al (2010) Complications affecting preterm neonates from 1991 to 2006: what have we gained? Acta Paediatr 99:354–358CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Hamrick SE et al (2004) Trends in severe brain injury and neurodevelopmental outcome in premature newborn infants: the role of cystic periventricular leukomalacia. J Pediatr 145:593–599CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Inder TE et al (2017) Preterm intraventricular hemorrhage/posthemorrhagic hydrocephalus. In: Volpe JJ (ed) Volpe’s neurology of the newborn, 6th edn. Elsevier, PhiladelphiaGoogle Scholar
  8. Leijser LM et al (2008) Comparing brain white matter on sequential cranial ultrasound and MRI in very preterm infants. Neuroradiology 50:799–811CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Leijser LM et al (2010) Is sequential cranial ultrasound reliable for detection of white matter injury in very preterm infants? Neuroradiology 52:397–406CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Limperopoulos C et al (2017) Cerebellar hemorrhage. In: Volpe JJ (ed) Volpe’s neurology of the newborn, 6th edn. Elsevier, PhiladelphiaGoogle Scholar
  11. Miller SP et al (2003) Comparing the diagnosis of white matter injury in premature newborns with serial MR imaging and transfontanel ultrasonography findings. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 24:1661–1669PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Neil JJ, Volpe JJ (2017) Encephalopathy of prematurity: clinical-neurological features, diagnosis, imaging, prognosis, therapy. In: Volpe JJ (ed) Volpe’s neurology of the newborn, 6th edn. Elsevier, PhiladelphiaGoogle Scholar
  13. Steggerda SJ et al (2013) Small cerebellar hemorrhage in preterm infants: perinatal and postnatal factors and outcome. Cerebellum 12(6):794–801CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. van Wezel-Meijler G, de Vries LS (2014) Cranial ultrasound-optimizing utility in the NICU. Curr Pediatr Rev 10:16–27CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gerda Meijler
    • 1
  • Sylke J. Steggerda
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of NeonatologyIsala Women and Children’s HospitalZwolleThe Netherlands
  2. 2.Department of NeonatologyLeiden University Medical CenterLeidenThe Netherlands

Personalised recommendations