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Cardiac Sodium Channel (Dys)Function and Inherited Arrhythmia Syndromes

  • Carol Ann Remme
Chapter
Part of the Cardiac and Vascular Biology book series (Abbreviated title: Card. vasc. biol.)

Abstract

Normal cardiac sodium channel function is essential for ensuring excitability of myocardial cells and proper conduction of the electrical impulse within the heart. Cardiac sodium channel dysfunction is associated with an increased risk of arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death. Over the last 20 years, (combined) genetic, electrophysiological, and molecular studies have provided insight into the (dys)function and (dys)regulation of the cardiac sodium channel under physiological circumstances and in the setting of SCN5A mutations identified in patients with inherited arrhythmia syndromes. Although our understanding of these sodium channelopathies has increased substantially, important issues remain incompletely understood. It has become increasingly clear that sodium channel distribution, function, and regulation are more complicated than traditionally assumed. Moreover, recent evidence suggests that the sodium channel may play additional, as of yet unrecognized, roles in cardiomyocyte function, which in turn may ultimately also impact on arrhythmogenesis. In this chapter, an overview is provided of the structure and function of the cardiac sodium channel and the clinical and biophysical characteristics of inherited sodium channel dysfunction. In addition, more recent insights into the electrophysiological and molecular aspects of sodium channel dysregulation and dysfunction in the setting of SCN5A mutations are discussed.

Notes

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Sources of Funding

This work was funded by a Priority Medicines Rare Diseases and Orphan Drugs grant (PM-Rare, 113303006) from The Netherlands Organization for Health Research and Development (ZonMw) and an Innovational Research Incentives Scheme Vidi grant from ZonMw (grant no. 91714371).

Conflict of Interest

Carol Ann Remme has previously received research grants from Gilead Sciences.

Ethical Approval

This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.

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© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Dept. of Clinical & Experimental CardiologyAcademic Medical Center, University of AmsterdamAmsterdamThe Netherlands

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