Advertisement

Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.): An Underutilized Edible Plant of Modern World

  • M. Aasim
  • F. S. Baloch
  • M. A. Nadeem
  • Allah Bakhsh
  • M. Sameeullah
  • S. Day
Chapter

Abstract

Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.) is an important forage, spice legume herb of Fabaceae family. It is well known for its medicinal uses due to high nutraceutical and pharmaceutical properties for curing diseases or disorders in Ayurvedic, Chinese, and Tibetan medication since ancient times. Currently it is a cultivated crop in most parts of the world with major focus on the isolation of its important secondary metabolites rather than its use as edible plant. Both seeds and leaves of fenugreek are of immense importance as they contain medicinally important phytochemicals like alkaloids, carbohydrates, steroidal saponins, amino acids and other important organic as well as inorganic compounds and minerals. Fenugreek seeds and leaves can be used as spice, food additive, flavoring agent, preservative, or directly as vegetable. Great efforts are spent on its improvement using traditional breeding programs or modern biotechnological tools because of the increasing demand of phytochemicals like disogenin and trigonelline extracted from this herb. In spite of its high medicinal value it is still considered as an underutilized plant. There is dire need to focus on the development of new cultivars in order to exploit its full potential as an edible plant along with its medicinal value. This study highlights its botanical features, distribution, genetic resources, possibilities for trait improvement and edible uses together with data on its pharmaceutical and nutraceutical characteristics, adverse effects as well as role in the functional food industries.

Keywords

Fenugreek Underutilized Edible Nutraceutical Pharmaceutical 

Notes

Acknowledgement

The authors highly acknowledge the efforts of Esra Kavcı, Büşra Behiye Taşbaşı, Burak Kahveci, Ecenur Korkmaz, and Arife Kirtiş for their support.

References

  1. Aasim M, Khawar KM, Ozcan S (2009) In vitro shoot regeneration of fenugreek (Trigonela foenumgraecum L.) Am Eu J Sustain Agric 3:135–138Google Scholar
  2. Aasim M, Hussain N, Umer EM, Zubair M, Hussain SB, Saeed S, Rafique TS, Sancak C (2010) In vitro shoot regeneration of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.) using different cytokinins. Afr J Biotechnol 9:7174–7179Google Scholar
  3. Aasim M, Khawar KM, Yalcin G, Bakhsh A (2014) Current trends ın fenugreek bıotechnology and approaches towards its improvement. AJSIH 4:127–136. (Fenugreek Special Issue)Google Scholar
  4. Abdel-Barry JA, Abdel-Hassan IA, Al-Hakiem MHH (1997) Hypoglycaemic and anti-hyperglycaemic effects of Trigonella foenum-graecum leaf in normal and alloxan induced diabetic rats. J Ethnopharmacol 58:149–155PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Abdel-Barry JA, Abdel-Hassan IA, Al-Hakiem MHH (2000) Hypoglycaemic effect of aqueous extract of the leaves of Trigonella foenum-graecum in healthy volunteers. East Mediterr Health J 6:83–88PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Acharya SN, Thomas JE, Basu SK (2006a) Fenugreek: an “old world” crop for the “new world”. Biodiversity (Tropical, Conservancy) 7:27–30CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Acharya S, Srichamroen A, Basu S, Ooraikul B, Basu T (2006b) Improvement in the nutraceutical properties of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.) Songklanakarin J Sci Technol 28:1–9Google Scholar
  8. Acharya SN, Basu SK, Thomas JE (2007) Medicinal properties of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.): a review of the evidence based information. In: Acharya SN, Thomas JE (eds) Advances in medical plant research. Research Signpost, Kerala, India, pp 81–122Google Scholar
  9. Acharya SN, Thomas JE, Basu SK (2008) Fenugreek, an alternative crop for semiarid regions of North America. Crop Sci 48:841–853CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Acharya SN, Acharya K, Paul S, Basu SK (2011) Variation in the antioxidant and anti-leukemic properties among different Western Canada grown fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.) genotypes. Can J Plant Sci 91:99–105CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Afsharie E, Ranjbar GA, Kazemitabar SK, Riasat M, Kazemi HP (2011). Callus induction, somatic embryogenesis and plant regeneration in fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.). Young Researchers Club Of Islamic Azad Universıty Of Shiraz Branch, Shiraz, Iran (in Persian)Google Scholar
  12. Aggarwal BB, Shishodia S (2006) Molecular targets of dietary agents for prevention and therapy of cancer. Biochem Pharmacol 71:1397–1421PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Ahari DS, Hassandokht MR, Kashi AK, Amri A (2014) Evaluation of genetic diversity in Iranian Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.) landraces using AFLP markers. Seed Plant Improve J 30:155–171Google Scholar
  14. Ahmad F, Acharya SN, Mir Z, Mir PS (1999) Localization and activity of rRNA genes on fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.) chromosomes by fluorescent in situ hybridization and silver staining. Theor Appl Genet 98:179–185CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Ahmadiani A, Javan M, Semnanian S, Barat E, Kamalinejdad M (2001) Anti-inflammatory and antipyretic effects of Trigonella foenum-graecum L. leaves extract in the rat. J Ethnopharmacol 2:283–286CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Ahmed FA, Ghanem SA, Reda AA, Solaiman M (2000) Effect of some growth regulators and subcultures on callus proliferation and trigonelline content of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum). Bull Nat Res Cent (Cairo) 25:35–46Google Scholar
  17. Akinrinde EA, Olanit JA (2014) Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.) A Potential, AllSeason, Forage Resource for Improved Ruminant Nutrition in Nigeria. AJSIH 4:68–85Google Scholar
  18. Al Jasass FM, Al Jasser MS (2012) Chemical composition and fatty acid content of some spices and herbs under Saudi Arabia conditions. ScientificWorld J 2012:858982.  https://doi.org/10.1100/2012/859892 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Al-Daghri NM, Majed S, Alokail MS, Alkharfy KM, Mohammed AK, AbdAlrahman SH, Yakout SM, Amer OE, Krishnaswamy S (2012) Fenugreek extract as an inducer of cellular death via autophagy in human T lymphoma Jurkat cells. BMC Complement Altern Med 12:202PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Al-Habori M, Raman A (2002) Pharmacological properties. In: Petropoulos G (ed) Fenugreek-the genus Trigonella. Taylor & Francis, London, pp 162–182Google Scholar
  21. Al-Hamood MH, Al-Bayati ZF (1995) Effect of Trigonella foenum-graecum, Neriuoleander and Ricinus communis on reproduction in mice. Iraqi J Sci 36:43Google Scholar
  22. Alkofahi A, Batshoun R, Owais W, Najib N (1996) Biological activity of some Jordanian medicinal plant extracts. Fitoterapia 67(5):435–442Google Scholar
  23. Allard I (1960) Principles of plant breeding. University of California, DavisGoogle Scholar
  24. Al-Maamari IT, Al-Sadi AM, Al-Saady NA (2014) Assessment of genetic diversity in Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum graecum L.) in Oman. Int J Agric Biol 16:813–818Google Scholar
  25. Al-Meshal IA, Parmar NS, Tariq M, Aqeel AM (1995) Gastric anti-ulcer activity in rats of Trigonella foenum graecum (Hu-Lu-Pa). Fitoterapia 56:232–235Google Scholar
  26. Altuntas E, Ozgoz E, Taser OF (2005) Some physical properties of fenugreek (Trigonella foenumgraceum L.) seeds. J Food Eng 71:37–43CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Amin A, Alkaabi A, Al-Falasi S, Daoud SA (2005) Chemppreventive activities of Trigonella foenum-graecum (Fenugreek) against breast cancer. Cell Biol Int 8:687–694CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Araee M, Norouzi M, Habibi G, Sheikhvatan M (2009) Toxicity of Trigonella foenum graceum (Fenugreek) in bone marrow cell proliferation in rat. Pak J Pharm Sci 22:126–130PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Aremu MO, Olaofe O, Basu SK, Abdulazeez G, Acharya SN (2010) Processed cranberry bean (Phaseolus coccineus L.) seed flour for the African diet. Can J Plant Sci 90:719–728CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Assefa A, Abebe T (2011) Wild edible trees and shrubs in the semi-arid lowlands of southern Ethiopia. J Sci Dev 1:5–19Google Scholar
  31. Aswar U, Bodhankar SL, Mohan V, Thakurdesai PA (2010) Effect of furostanol glycosides from Trigonella foenum-graecum on the reproductive system of male albino rats. Phytother Res 24:1482–1488PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Auerbach C (1961) Chemicals and their effects. Proc Symp Mutation Plant Breed Cornell 25:585–621Google Scholar
  33. Balch PA (2003) Prescription for dietary wellness. Penguin, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  34. Banerjee A, Kole PC (2004) Analysis of genetic divergence in fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecumL.) J Spices Aromat Crops 13:49–51Google Scholar
  35. Basch E, Ulbricht C, Kuo G, Szapary P, Smith M (2003) Therapeutic applications of Fenugreek. Altern Med Rev 8:20–27PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Bashir S, Wani AA, Nawchoo IA (2013) Studies on mutagenic effectiveness and efficiency in Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.) Afr J Biotechnol 12:2437–2440Google Scholar
  37. Basu SK (2006). Seed production technology for Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.) in the Canadian Prairies (Ms Thesis). University of Lethbridge, Faculty of Arts Sci, Lethbridge, Alberta, CanadaGoogle Scholar
  38. Basu SK, Thomas JE, Acharya SN (2007) Prospects for growth in global nutraceutical and functional food markets: a Canadian perspective. Aust J Basic Appl Sci 1:637–649Google Scholar
  39. Basu SK, Acharya SN, Thomas JE (2008a) Application of phosphate fertilizer and harvest management for improving Fenugreek (Trigonella foenumgraecum L.) seed and forage yield in a dark brown soil zone of Canada. KMITL Sci Tech J 8:1–7Google Scholar
  40. Basu SK, Acharya SN, Thomas JE (2008b) Genetic improvement of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.) through EMS induced mutation breeding for higher seed yield under western Canada prairie conditions. Euphytica 160:249–258CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Basu SK, Acharya SN, Thomas JE (2009) Production of high quality fenugreek (Trigonella foenumgraecum L.). VDM Verlag, GermanyGoogle Scholar
  42. Basu A, Basu SK, Kumar A, Sharma M, Chalghoumi R, Hedi A, Cetzal-Ix W (2014) Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.), a potential new crop for Latin America. AJSIH 4:1–2Google Scholar
  43. Belguith-Hadriche O, Bouaziz M, Jamoussi K, Simmonds MS, El Feki A, Makni-Ayedi F (2013) Comparative study on hypocholesterolemic and antioxidant activities of various extracts of fenugreek seeds. Food Chem 2:1448–1453CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Betty R (2008) The many healing virtues of fenugreek. Spice India 1:17–19Google Scholar
  45. Bhatia K, Kaur M, Atif F, Ali M, Rehman H (2006) Aqueous extract of Trigonella foenum-graecum L. ameliorates additive urotoxicity of buthionine sulfoximine and cyclophosphamide in mice. Chem Toxicol 44:1744–1750CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Bin-Hafeez B, Haque R, Parvez S, Pandey S, Sayeed I, Raisuddin S (2003) Immunomodulatory effects of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum graecum L.) extract in mice. Int Immunopharmacol 2:257–265CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Blumenthal M, Goldberg A, Brinckmann J (2000) Herbal medicine: expanded commission E monographs. American Botanical Council, Integrative Medicine Communications, Newton, MA, pp 103–133Google Scholar
  48. Brain KR, Williams MH (1983) Evidence for an alternative rate from sterol to sapogenin in suspension cultures from Trigonella foenumgraecum. Plant Cell Rep 2:7–10PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Broca C, Manteghetti M, Gross R, Baissac Y, Jacob M, Petit P, Sauvaire Y, Ribes G (2000) 4-Hydroxyisoleucine: effects of synthetic and natural analogues on insulin secretion. Eur J Pharmacol 390:339–345PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. De Candolle A (1964) Origin of cultivated plants. Hafner, New York, p 468Google Scholar
  51. Cerdon C, Rahier A, Taton M, Sauvaire Y (1945) Effect of diniconazole on sterol composition of roots and cell suspension cultures of fenugreek. Phytochemistry 39:883–893CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Chatterjee S, Variyar PS, Sharma A (2010) Bioactive lipid constituents of fenugreek. Food Chem 1:349–353CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Chatterjee S, Kumar M, Kumar A (2012) Chemomodulatory effect of Trigonella foenum graecum (L.) seed extract on two stage mouse skin carcinogenesis. Toxicol Int 19:287–294PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Choudhary S, Meena RS, Singh R, Vishal MK, Choudhary V, Panwar A (2013) Assessment of genetic diversity among Indian Fenugreek (Trigoinella foenum-graecum L.) varieties using morphological and RAPD markers. Legume Res 36:289–298Google Scholar
  55. Christen P (2002) Trigonella species: in vitro culture and production of secondary metabolites. In: Nagata T, Ebizuka Y (eds) Medicinal and aromatic plants (vol. 12), Biotechnology in agriculture and forestry, vol 51. Springer, NY, pp 306–348CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Dangi RS, Lagu MD, Choudhary LB, Ranjekar PK, Gupta VS (2004) Assessment of genetic diversity in Trigonella foenum-gracecum and Trigonella caerulea using ISSR and RAPD markers. BMC Plant Biol 4:13PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Dansi A, Vodouh’e R, Azokpota P, Yedomonhan H, Assogba P, Adjatin A et al (2012) Diversity of the neglected and underutilized crop species of importance in Benin. Scientific World J 2012:932947.  https://doi.org/10.1100/2012/932947 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Davoud SA, Hassandokht MR, Kashi AK, Amri A, Alizadeh KH (2010) Genetic variability of some agronomic traits in the Iranian fenugreek landraces under drought stress and nonstress conditions. Afr J Plant Sci 4:12–20Google Scholar
  59. Devasena T, Menon VP (2003) Fenugreek affects the activity of beta-glucuronidase and mucinase in the colon. Phytother Res 17:1088–1091PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Dhawan BN, Patnaik GK, Rastogi RP, Singh KK, Tandon JS (1977) Screening of Indian plants for biological activity. Indian J Exp Biol 115:208–219Google Scholar
  61. Dilokpimol A (2010) Production and characterisation of glycoside hydrolases from GH3, GH5, GH10, GH11 and GH61 for chemoenzymatic synthesis of xylo- and mannooligosaccharides. Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Systems Biology, Technical University of Denmark, DenmarkGoogle Scholar
  62. Dixit P, Ghaskadbi S, Mohan H, Devasagayam TP (2005) Antioxidant properties of germinated fenugreek seeds. Phytother Res 19:977–983PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Doshi M, Mirza A, Umarji B, Karambelkar R (2012) Effect of Trigonella foenum-graecum (fenugreek/methi) on hemoglobin levels in females of child bearing age. Biomed Res 23:47Google Scholar
  64. Duhan A, Khetarpaul N, Bishnoi S (2002) Changes in phytates and HCl extractability of calcium, phosphorus, and iron of soaked, dehulled, cooked, and sprouted pigeon pea cultivar (UPAS-120). Plant Foods Hum Nutr 57:275–284PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Duke AJ (1986) Handbook of legumes of world economic importance. Plemus Press, New York and LondonGoogle Scholar
  66. Duke JA, Reed CF, Weder JKP (1981) Tamarindus indica: handbook of legumes of world economic importanceGoogle Scholar
  67. ElMaki HB, AbdelRahaman SM, Idris WH, Hassan AB, Babiker EE, El Tinay AH (2007) Content of antinutritional factors and HClextractability of minerals from white bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) cultivars: influence of soaking and/or cooking. Food Chem 100:362–368CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Fazli FRY, Hardman R (1968) The spice, fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.): its conmmercial varieties of seed as a source. Trop Sci 10:66–78Google Scholar
  69. Fehr WR (1998) Principles of cultivar development: theory and technique. Macmillan Publishing Company, New York, p 536Google Scholar
  70. Fikreselassie M, Zeleke H, Alemay N (2012) Genetic variability of Ethiopian fenugreek (Trigonella foenumgraecum L.) landraces. J Plant Breed Crop Sci 4:39–48Google Scholar
  71. Fufa M (2013) Correlation studies on yield and yield components of Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.) lines evaluated in South-Eastern Ethiopia. Wudpecker J Agric Res 2:280–282Google Scholar
  72. Gadge P, Wakle V, Muktawar A, Joshi Y (2012) Effect of mutagens on morphological characters of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.) Asian. J Biosci 2:178–181Google Scholar
  73. Gao F, Du W, Zafar MI, Shafqat RA, Jian L, Cai Q, Lu F (2015) 4-Hydroxyisoleucine ameliorates an insulin resistant-like state in 3 T3-L1 adipocytes by regulating TACE/TIMP3 expression. Drug Des Devel Ther 20:5727–5736CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Gupta RK, Jain DC, Thakur RS (1986) Minor steroidal sapogenins from fenugreek seeds, Trigonella foenum-graecum. J Nat Prod 49:1153CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Gupta A, Gupta R, Lal B (2001) Effect of Trigonella foenum-graecum (fenugreek) seeds on glycaemic control and insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes mellitus: a double blind placebo controlled study. J Assoc Physicians India 49:1057–1061PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Haliem EA, Al-Huqail AA (2014) Correlation of genetic variation among wild Trigonella foenum graecum L. accessions with their antioxidant potential status. Genet Mol Res 13:10464–10481PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Hamden K, Masmoudi H, Carreau S, Elfeki A (2010) Immunomodulatory, beta-cell, and neuroprotective actions of fenugreek oil from alloxan-induced diabetes. Immunopharmacol Immunotoxicol 32:437–445PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Hannana JMA, Rokeya B, Faruque O, Nahar N, Mosihuzzaman M, Khana AK, Alia L (2003) Effect of soluble dietary fiber fraction of Trigonella foenum-graecum on glycemic, insulinemic, lipidemic and platelet aggregation status of Type 2 diabetic model rats. J Ethnopharmacol 88:73–77CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Hardman R, Petropoulos GA (1975) The response of Trigonella foenumgraecum (fenugreek) to field inoculation with Rhizobium meliloti. Planta Med 27:53–57CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Harish AKG, Ram K, Singh B, Phulwaria M, Shekhawat N (2011) Molecular and biochemical characterization of different accessions of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.) Libyan Agric Res Center J Int 2:150–154Google Scholar
  81. Heck AM, DeWitt BA, Lukes AL (2000) Potential interactions between alternative therapies and warfarin. Am J Health Syst Pharm 57:1221–1227PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Hegazy A, Ibrahim T (2009) Iron bioavailability of wheat biscuits supplemented by fenugreek seed flour. World J Agric Sci 5:769–776Google Scholar
  83. Hibasami H, Moteki H, Ishikawa H, Imai K, Yoshioka K (2003) Protodioscin isolated from fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) induces cell death and morphological change indicative of apoptosis in leukemic cell line H-60 but not in gastric cancer cell line KATO III. Int J Mol Med 11:23–26PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Hidvegi M, El-Kady A, Lasztity R, Bekes F, Simon-Sarkadi L (1984) Contribution to the nutritional characterization of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum graecum L.) Acta Alim 13:315–324Google Scholar
  85. Hillaire-Buys D, Petit P, Manteghetti M, Baissac Y, Sauvaire Y, Ribes G (1993) Arecently identified substance extracted from fenugreek seeds stimulates insulin secretion in rat. Diabetologia 36:A119Google Scholar
  86. Hora A, Malik CP, Kumari B (2016) Assessment of genetic diversity of Trigonella foenumgraecum L. in northern India using RAPD and ISSR markers. Int J Pharm Pharmac Sci 8:179–183Google Scholar
  87. Hunde D, Njoka J, Zemede A, Nyangito M (2011) Wild edible fruits of importance for human nutrition in semiarid parts of east shewa zone, Ethiopia: associated indigenous knowledge and implications to food security. Pak J Nutr 10:40–50Google Scholar
  88. Isikli ND, Karababa E (2005) Rheological characterization of fenugreek paste (cemen). J Food Eng 69:185–190CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Jain SC, Agarwal M (1994) Effect of mutagens on steroidal sapogenins in Trigonella foenum-graecum tissue cultures. Fitoterapia 65:367–375Google Scholar
  90. Jain SC, Agrawal M (1987) Effect of chemical mutagens on steroidal sapogenin in Trigonella species. Phytochemistry 26:2203–2206CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Jain A, Singh B, Solanki R, Saxena S, Kakani R (2013) Genetic variability and character association in fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.) Int J Seed Spices 2:22–28Google Scholar
  92. James AD, Bogenschutz-Godwin MJ, duCellier J, Duke KP (2002) Medicinal herbs. handbook, 2nd edn. CRC Press, Boca Raton, London, New York, Washington, DC, p 296Google Scholar
  93. Jani R, Udipi SA, Ghugre PS (2009) Mineral content of complementary foods. Indian J Pediatr 76:37–44PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Jasim B, Thomas R, Mathew J, Radhakrishnan EK (2017) Plant growth and diosgenin enhancement effect of silver nanoparticles in Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.) Saudi Pharmaceut J 25:443–447CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Jiang W, Gao L, Li P, Kan H, Qu J, Men L, Liu Z, Liu Z (2017) Metabonomics study of the therapeutic mechanism of fenugreekgalactomannan on diabetic hyperglycemia in rats, byultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupoletime-of-flight mass spectrometry. J Chromatogr B 1044–1045:8–16CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Joshi JG, Handler P (1960) Biosynthesis of Trigonelline. J Biol Chem 235:2981–2983PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. Kavcı E, Taşbaşı BB, Aasim M, Day S, Bakhsh A, Khawar KM (2017) Efficacy of explant age, sucrose and thidiazuron on in vitro shoot regeneration of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.). In: 1st International congress on medicinal and aromatic plants-natural and healthy life, 10–12 May 2017 Konya, TurkeyGoogle Scholar
  98. Kaviarasan S, Vijayalakshmi K, Anuradha C (2004) Polyphenol-rich extract of fenugreek seeds protect erythrocytes from oxidative damage. Plant Fodds Hum Nutr 4:143–147CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Kaviarasan S, Naik GH, Gangabhagiarathi R, Anuradha CV, Priyadarsini KI (2007) In vitro studies on antiradical and antioxidant activities of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum graecum) seeds. Food Chem 103:31–37CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Khalki L, M’hamed SB, Bennis M, Chait A, Sokar Z (2010) Evaluation of the developmental toxicity of the aqueous extract from Trigonella foenum-graecum (L.) in mice. J Ethnopharmacol 15:321–325CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Khanna P, Jain SC (1973) Diosgenin, gitogenin and tigogenin from Trigonella foenum-graecum tissue cultures. Lloydia 36:96–98Google Scholar
  102. Khanna P, Jain SC, Bansal R (1975) Effect of cholesterol on growth and production of diosgenin, gitogenin, tigogenin and sterols in suspension cultures. Indian J Exp Biol 13:211–213Google Scholar
  103. Khare AK, Sharma MK, Bhatnagar VM (1983) Mild anti-fertility effect of the real extract of seeds of Trigonella foenum-graecum (Methi) in rats. Arogya J Health Sci IX:91–93Google Scholar
  104. Khawar KM, Gulbitti SO, Cocu S, Erisen S, Sancak C, Ozcan S (2004) In vitro Crown Galls Induced by Agrobacterium tumefaciens Strain A281 (pTiBo542) in Trigonella foenum-graecum. Biol Plant 48:441–444CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Khiriya KD, Singh BP (2003) Effect of phosphorus and farmyard manure on yield, yield attributes and nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium uptake of fenugreek (Trigonella foenumgraecum). Indian J Agron 48:62–65Google Scholar
  106. Kochhar A, Nagi M, Sachdeva R (2006) Proximate composition, available carbohydrates, dietary fibre and anti nutritional factors of selected traditional medicinal plants. J Hum Ecol 19:195–199CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Korman SH, Cohen E, Preminger A (2001) Pseudo-maple syrup urine disease due to maternal prenatal ingestion of fenugreek. J Paediatr Child Health 37:403–404PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Ktari N, Feki A, Trabeisi I, Tirik M, Hana M, Slima SB, Nasri M, Amara IB, Salah RB (2017) Structure, functional and antioxidant properties in Tunisian beefsausage of a novel polysaccharide from Trigonella foenum-graecum seeds. Int J Biol Macromol 98:169–181PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Kumar P, Bhandari U (2015) Common medicinal plants with antiobesity potential: a special emphasis on fenugreek. Anc Sci Life 35:58–63PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Kumar V, Srivastava N, Singh A, Vyas MK, Gupta S, Katudia K, Vaidya K, Chaudhary S, Ghosh A, Chikara SK (2012) Genetic diversity and identification of variety-specific AFLP markers in Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum). Afr J Biotechnol 11:4323–4329CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Lal S, Rana MK, Partap PS (2003) Economic returns from various fenugreek genotypes as ınfluenced by date of showing and greens-cutting levels. Haryana J Hort Sci 32:117–120Google Scholar
  112. Lambert JP, Cormier A (2001) Potential interaction between warfarin and boldo-fenugreek. Pharmacotherapy 21:509–512PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Lee EL (2009). Genotype x environment impact on selected bioactive compound content of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.). Masters thesis, Department of Biological Sciences, University of Lethbridge, Alberta Canada.Google Scholar
  114. Leela NK, Shafeekh KM (2008) Fenugreek. In: Parthasarathy VA, Chempakam B, Zachariah TJ (eds) Chemistry of spices. CAB International, Wallingford, pp 242–259CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Magbagbeola JA, Adetoso JA, Owolabi OA (2010) Neglected and underutilized species (NUS): panacea for community focused development to poverty alleviation/poverty reduction in Nigeria. J Ecol Int Fin 2:208–211Google Scholar
  116. Mahmoud NY, Salem RH, Mater AA (2012) Nutritional and biological assessment of wheat biscuits supplemented by fenugreek plant to improve diet of anemic rats. Acad J Nutr 1:1–9Google Scholar
  117. Mamatha NC, Tehlan SK, Srikanth M, Shivaprasad MK, Reddy PK (2017) Molecular characterization of Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.) genotypes using RAPD markers. Int J Curr Microbiol App Sci 6:2573–2581CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Marles RJ, Farnsworth NR (1995) Antidiabetic plants and their active constituents. Phytomedicine 2:137–189PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Mathern JR, Raatz SK, Thomas W, Slavin JL (2009) Effect of fenugreek fiber on satiety, blood glucose and insulin response and energy intake in obese subjects. Phytother Res 23:1543–1548PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. McCormick KM, Norton RM, Eagles HA (2009) Phenotypic variation within a fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.) germplasm collection. II. Cultivar selection based on traits associated with seed yield. Genet Resour Crop 56:651–661CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Meghwal M, Goswami TK (2012) A review on the functional properties, nutritional content, medicinal utilization and potential application of fenugreek. J Food Process Technol 3:181–202CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Mehrafarin A, Qaderi A, Rezazadeh S, Naghdi Badi H, Noormohammadi GH, Zand E (2010) Bioengineering of important secondary metabolites and metabolic pathways in fenugreek (Trigonella foenumgraecum L.) J Med Plants 9:1–18Google Scholar
  123. Mehrafarin A, Rezazadeh SH, Naghdi BH, Noormohammadi GH, Zand E, Qaderi AA (2011) review on biology, cultivation and biotechnology of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.) as a valuable medicinal plant and multipurpose. J Med Plants 10:6–24Google Scholar
  124. Meier H, Reid JSG (1977) Morphological aspects of the galactomannan formation in the endosperm of Trigonella foenum-graecum L. (Leguminosae). Planta 133:243–248PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Merkli A, Christen P, Kapetanidis I (1997) Production of diosgenin by hairy root cultures of Trigonella foenum-graecum L. Plant Cell Rep 16:632–636CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Mir Z, Mir PS, Acharya SN, Zaman MS, Taylor WG, Mears GJ, Goonewardene LA (1998) Comparison of alfalfa and fenugreek silages supplemented with barley grain on performance of growing steers. Can J Anim Sci 78:343–349CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Miraldi E, Ferri S, Mostaghimi V (2001) Botanical drugs and preparations in the traditional medicine of West Azerbaijan (Iran). J Ethnopharmacol 2:77–87CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Modi IR, Ranvid CE, Cindura R, Shan V (2016) Assessment of genetic variability in Trigonella cultivars by RAPD analysis. Int J Biochem Biotechnol 5:511–517Google Scholar
  129. Mohamed WS, Mostafa AM, Mohamed KM, Serwah AH (2015) Effects of fenugreek, Nigella, and termis seeds in nonalcoholic fatty liver in obese diabetic albino rats. Arabian J Gastroenterol 16:1–9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Moosa ASM, Rashid MU, Asadi AZS, Ara N, Uddin MM, Ferdaus A (2006) Hypolipidemic effects of fenugreek seed powder. Bangladesh J Pharmacol 1:64–67Google Scholar
  131. Moradi kor N, Moradi K (2013) Physiological and pharmaceutical effects of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.) as a multipurpose and valuable medicinal plant. Global J Med Plant Res 1:199–206Google Scholar
  132. Morcos SR, Elhawary Z, Gabrial GN (1981) Proteinrich food mixtures for feeding the young in Egypt. 1. Formulation. Z Ernahrungswiss 20:275–282PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Nadkarni KM (1954). Indian materia medica, Popular book depot, Bombay, pp 1240–1243Google Scholar
  134. Naidu MM, Shyamala BN, Naik JP, Sulochanamma G, Srinivas P (2011) Chemical composition and antioxidant activity of the husk and endosperm of fenugreek seeds. LWT Food Sci Technol 44:451–456CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Najafi S, Anakhatoon EZ, Brisin MA (2013) Karyotype characterization of reputed variety of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) in West Azerbaijan-Iran. J Appl Biol Sci 1:23–26Google Scholar
  136. Najma ZB, Pardeep K, Asia T, Kale RK, Cowsik SM, McLean P (2011) Metabolic and molecular action of Trigonella foenum-graecum (fenugreek) and trace metals in experimental diabetic tissues. J Biosci 36:383–396CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Nanjundan P, Arunachalam A, Thakur R (2009) Antinociceptive property of Trigonella foenum graecum (fenugreek seeds) in high fat diet-fed/low dose streptozotocin-induced diabetic neuropathy in rats. Pharmacology 84:24–36CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Ohnuma N, Yamaguchi E, Kawakami Y (1998) Anaphylaxis to curry powder. Allergy 53:452–454PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Olaiya CO, Soetan KO (2014) A review of the health benefits of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.): Nutritional, biochemical and pharmaceutical perspectives. AJSIH 4:3–12Google Scholar
  140. Oncina R, delrio JA, Gomez P, Ortuno A (2000) Effect of ethylene on diosgenin accumulation in callus culture of Trigonella foenumgraecum L. Food Chem 76:475–479CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. Panda S, Biswas S, Kar A (2013) Trigonelline isolated from fenugreek seed protects against isoproterenol-induced myocardial injury through down-regulation of Hsp27 and a B-crystallin. Nutrition 29:1395–1403PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. Patil SP, Niphadkar PV, Bapat MM (1997) Allergy to fenugreek (Trigonella foenum graecum). Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol 78:297–300PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. Petit P, Sauvaire Y, Ponsin G, Manteghetti M, Fave A, Ribes G (1993) Effects of a fenugreek seed extract on feeding behaviour in the rat: metabolic-endocrine correlates. Pharmacol Biochem Behav (2):369–374CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. Petropoulos GA (1973) Agronomic, genetic and chemical studies of Trigonella foenum graecum L.., PhD dissertation. Bath University, EnglandGoogle Scholar
  145. Petropoulos GA (2002) Fenugreek—the genus Trigonella. Taylor and Francis, London and New YorkCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. Petropoulos GA (2003) Fenugreek: the genus Trigonella. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FLGoogle Scholar
  147. Piao CH, Bui TT, Song CH, Shin HS, Shon DH, Chai OH (2017) Trigonella foenum-graecum alleviates airway inflammation of allergic asthma in ovalbumin-induced mouse model. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 482:1284–1288PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. Prabakaran G, Ravimycin T (2012) Studies on in vitro propagation and biochemical analysis of Trigonella foenum-graecum L. Asian J BioSci 7:88–91Google Scholar
  149. Prabha R, Dixit V, Chaudhary BR (2010) Sodium azide-induced mutagenesis in fenugreek (Trigonella foenum graecum Lınn). Legume Res 33:235–241Google Scholar
  150. Prajapati DB, Ravindrababu Y, Prajapati BH (2010) Genetic variability and character association in fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.) J Spices Aromatic Crop 19:61–64Google Scholar
  151. Prasad R (2011) Identification of high seed yielding and stable fenugreek mutants, Master of Science Thesis, Department of Biological Sciences University of Lethbridge, Alberta, CanadaGoogle Scholar
  152. Premnath R, Sudisha J, Lakshmi Devi N, Aradhya SM (2011). Anti-bacterial and anti-oxidant activities of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graceum L.) leaves. Res J Med Plant. doi:  https://doi.org/10.3923/rjmp.2011
  153. Price KR, Johnson IT, Fenwick GR (1987) The chemistry and biological significance of saponins in foods and feeding stuffs. CRC Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 26:27–135CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. Priya V, Jananie R, Vijayalakshmi K (2011) GC/MS determination of bioactive components of Trigonella foenum graecum. J Chem Pharm Res 5:35–40CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. Rababah TM, Ereifej KI, Esoh RB, Al-u’datt MH, Alrababah MA, Yang W (2011) Antioxidant activities, total phenolics and HPLC analyses of the phenolic compounds of extracts from common Mediterranean plants. Nat Prod Res (6):596–605PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. Radwan SS, Kokate CK (1980) Production of higher levels of Trigonellin by cell cultures of Trigonella foenum-graecum than by the differentiated plant. Planta 147:340–344PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. Raghuram TC, Sharma RD, Sivakumar B, Sahay BK (1994) Effect of fenugreek seeds on intravenous glucose disposition in noninsulin dependent diabetic patients. Phytother Res 8:83–86CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. Raheleh A, Hasanloo T, Khosroshali M (2011) Evaluation of trigonelline production in Trigonella foenum-graecum hairy root cultures of two Iranian masses. POJ 4:408–412Google Scholar
  159. Rajni P, Vineeta D, Chaudhary BR (2010) Sodium azide-induced mutagenesis in fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.) Legume Res 33:235–241Google Scholar
  160. Raju J, Bird RP (2006) Alleviation of hepatic steatosis accompanied by modulation of plasma and liver TNFalpha levels by Trigonella foenum graecum (fenugreek) seeds in Zucker obese (fa/fa) rats. Int J Obes (Lond) 30:1298–1307CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. Raju J, Gupta D, Rao AR, Yadava PK, Baquer NZ (2001) Trigonella foenum graecum (fenugreek) seed powder improves glucose homeostasis in alloxan diabetic rat tissues by reversing the altered glycolytic, gluconeogenic and lipogenic enzymes. Mol Cell Biochem 224:45–51PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. Raju J, Patlolla JM, Swamy MV, Rao CV (2004) Diosgenin, a steroid saponin of Trigonella foenum graecum (Fenugreek), inhibits azoxymethane-induced aberrant crypt foci formation in F344 rats and induces apoptosis in HT-29 human colon cancer cells. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 8:1392–1398Google Scholar
  163. Ramesh BK, Yogesh RHL, Kantikar SM, Prakash KB (2010) Antidiabetic and histopathological analysis of fenugreek extract on alloxan induced diabetic rats. Int J Drug Develop Res 2:356–364Google Scholar
  164. Randhawa GS, Gill BS, Saini SS, Singh J (1996) Agronomic technology for production of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.) seeds. J Herbs Spices Arom Plants 4:43–49CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. Randhawa GJ, Singh M, Gangopadhyay KK, Kumar G, Archak S (2012) Genetic analysis of Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) accessions using morphometric and ISSR markers. Indian J Agric Sci 82:393–401Google Scholar
  166. Rashmi Y, Rahul K (2011) Study of phytochemical constituents and pharmacological actions of Trigonella foenum-graecum: a review. Int J Pharm Technol 3:1022–1028Google Scholar
  167. Ribes G, Da Costa C, Loubatieres Mariani MM, Sauvaire Y, Baccou JC (1987) Hypocholesterolaemic and hypotriglyceridaemic effects of subfractions from fenugreek seeds in alloxan diabetic dogs. Phytother Res 1:38–43CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. Rosser A (1985) The day of the yam. Nurs Times 81:47PubMedGoogle Scholar
  169. Roy RP, Singh A (1968) Cytomorphological studies of the colchicine-induced tetraploid Trigonella foenum-graecum. Genet Iber 20:37–54Google Scholar
  170. Salvi J, Katewa SS (2016) A review: underutilized wild edible plants as a potential source of alternative nutrition. Int J Bot Stud 1:32–36Google Scholar
  171. Sauvare Y, Pett P, Baissao Y, Ribes G (2000) Chemistry and pharmacology of fenugreek. In: Mazza G, Oomah BD (eds) Herbs, botanicals and teas. Technomic Publishing Company Inc., PA, pp 107–129Google Scholar
  172. Scheller HV, Ulvskov P (2010) Hemicelluloses. Annu Rev Plant Biol 61:263–289PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  173. Setty BS, Kamboj VP, Garg HS, Khanna NM (1976) Spermicidal potential of saponins isolated from Indian medicinal plants. Contraception 14:571–578PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  174. Shabbeer S, Sobolewski M, Kachhap S, Hidalgo M, Jimeno A, Davidson N, Carducci MA, Khan SR (2009) Fenugreek: a naturally occurring edible spice as an anticancer agent. Cancer Biol Ther 8:272–278PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  175. Shankaracharya NB, Natarajan CP (1986). Fenugreek: chemical composition and uses. Indian species. Mital and GopaldasGoogle Scholar
  176. Sharma RD (1984) Hypocholesterolaemic activity of fenugreek (T. foenum graecum): in experimental study in rats. Nutr Rep Int 30:221–231Google Scholar
  177. Sharma RD (1986) Effects of seeds and leaves on blood glucose and serum insulin responses in human subjects. Nutr Res 6:1353–1364CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  178. Sharma MS, Choudhary PR (2016) Effect of fenugreek seeds powder (Trigonellafoenum-graecum L.) on experimental induced hyperlipidemia in rabbits. J Diet Suppl 14.  https://doi.org/10.3109/19390211.2016.1168905
  179. Sharma RD, Raghuram TC (1990) Hypoglycaemic effect of fenugreek seeds in non-insulin dependent diabetic subjects. Nutr Res 10:731–739CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  180. Sharma V, Singh P, Rani A (2017) Antimicrobial activities of Trigonella foenum-graecum L. (Fenugreek). Eu J Exp Biol 7:1–4Google Scholar
  181. Shekhawat NS, Galston AW (1983) Mesophyll protoplasts of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum): Isolation, culture and shoot regeneration. Plant Cell Rep 2:119–112PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  182. Skaltsa H (2002) Chemical constituents. In: Petropoulos GA (ed) Fenugreek-the genus Trigonella. Taylor & Francis, London, pp 132–163Google Scholar
  183. Sowmya P, Rajyalakshmi P (1999) Hypocholesterolemic effect of germinated fenugreek seeds in human subjects. Plant Foods Hum Nutr 4:359–365CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  184. Srinivasan K (2006) Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graceum): a review of health beneficial physiological effects. Food Rev Intl 22:203–224CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  185. Suavare Y, Pett P, Baissao G, Ribes G (2000) Chemistry and pharmacology of fenugreek. In: Mazza G, Oamah BD (eds) Herbs, botanicals and teas. Technomic Pblishing Company Inc., Lancaster, PA, pp 107–129Google Scholar
  186. Sundaram S, Purwar S (2011) Assessment of genetic diversity among Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.), using RAPD molecular markers. J Med Plant Res 5:1543–1548Google Scholar
  187. Taşbaşı BB, Kavcı E, Kirtiş A, Day S, Aasim M, Khawar KM (2017) Efficacy of sucrose and thidiazuron on in vitro shoot regeneration of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.). In: 1st international congress on medicinal and aromatic plants-natural and healthy life, 10–12 May 2017 Konya, TurkeyGoogle Scholar
  188. Taylor WG, Elder JL, Chang PR, Richards KW (2000) Micro determination of diosgenin from fenugreek (Trigonella foenumgraecum) seeds. J Agric Food Chem 48:5206–5210PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  189. Tayyaba Z, Hussain SN, Hasan SK (2001) Evaluation of the oral hypoglacemic effects of Trigonella foenum-graecum L (Methi) in normal mice. J Ethnopharmacol 75:191–195CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  190. Thakran S, Siddiqui M, Baquer NZ (2004) Trigonella foenum graecum seed powder protects against histopathological abnormalities in tissues of diabetic rats. Mol Cell Biochem 266(1–2):151–159PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  191. Thakur A, Sarvaiya J, Bhavsar S, Malik J (1994) Studies on anti-inflammatory activities of Trigonella in rats. Update Ayurveda, Bombay, IndiaGoogle Scholar
  192. Thirunavukkarasu V, Anuradha CV, Viswanathan P (2003) Protective effect of fenugreek (Trigonella foenumgraecum) seeds in experimental ethanol toxicity. Phytother Res 17:737–743PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  193. Thomas JE, Basu SK, Acharya SN (2006) Identification of Trigonella accessions which lack antimicrobial activity and are suitable for forage development. Can J Plant Sci 86:727–732CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  194. Thomas JE, Bandara M, Lee EL, Driedger D, Acharya S (2011) Biochemical monitoring in fenugreek to develop functional food and medicinal plant variants. N Biotechnol 28:110–117PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  195. Tomar RS, Parakhia MV, Rathod VM, Thakkar JR, Golakiya BA (2014) A Comparative analysis of ISSR and RAPD markers for studying genetic diversity in Trigonella foenum-graecum genotypes. Res J Biotechnol 9:89–95Google Scholar
  196. Trisonthi P, Baccou JC, Sauvaire Y (1980) Trial to improve production of steroidal sapogenin by fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.) tissue grown in vitro. CR Seances Acad Sci Ser D 291:357–360Google Scholar
  197. Tsiri D, Chinou I, Halabalaki M, Haralampidis K, Spyropoulos CG (2009) The origin of copper-induced medicarpin accumulation and its secretion from roots of young fenugreek seedlings are regulated by copper concentration. Plant Sci 176:367–374CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  198. Udensi EA, Onwuka GI, Onyekwere CR (2005) Effect of autoclaving and boiling on some anti-nutritional factors in Mucuna sloanie. Niger Food J 23:53–58Google Scholar
  199. Valette G, Sauvaire Y, Baccou JC, Ribes G (1984) Hypocholesterolaemic effetc of fenugreek seeds in dogs. Atherosclerosis 50:105–111PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  200. Vats V, Grover J, Rathi S (2002) Evaluation of anti-hyperglycemic and hypoglycemic effect of Trigonella foenum-graecum Linn, Ocimum sanctumLinn and Pterocarpus marsupium Linn in normal and alloxanized diabetic rats. J Ethnopharmacol (1):95–100PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  201. Vidyashankar GK (2014). Fenugreek: an analysis from trade and commerce perspective. AJSIH Fenugreek Special Issue, pp 162–170.Google Scholar
  202. Vijayakumar MV, Bhat MK (2008) Hypoglycemic effect of a novel dialysed fenugreek seeds extract is sustainable and is mediated, in part, by the activation of hepatic enzymes. Phytother Res 22:500–505PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  203. Xue W, Lei J, Li X, Zhang R (2011) Trigonella foenum-graecum seed extract protects kidney function and morphology in diabetic rats via its antioxidant activity. Butr Res (7):555–562PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  204. Yadav SS, McNeil D, Stevenson PC (2007) Lentil: an ancient crop for modern times (edited). Springer, Dordrecht, The NetherlandsCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  205. Yoshikawa M, Murakami T, Komatsu H, Murakami N, Yamahara J, Matsuda H (1997) Medicinal foodstuffs. IV. Fenugreek seed. (1): structures of trigoneosides Ia, Ib, IIa, IIb, IIIa, and IIIb, new furostanol saponins from the seeds of Indian Trigonella foenumgraecum L. Chem Pharm Bull 45:81–87PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  206. Yoshikawa T, Toyokuni S, Yamamoto Y, Naito Y (2000) Free radicals in chemistry biology and medicine. OICA International, LondonGoogle Scholar
  207. Yoshinari O, Igarashi K (2010) Anti-diabetic effect of trigonelline and nicotinic acid, on KK-Ay mice. Curr Med Chem (20):2196–2202PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  208. Zandi P, Basu SK, Khatibani LB, Balogun MO, Aremu MO, Sharma M, Tashi S (2015) Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.) seed: a review of physiological and biochemical properties and their genetic improvement. Acta Physiol Plant 37:1–14CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  209. Zandi P, Basu SK, Cetzal-Ix W, Kordrostami M, Chalaras SK, Khatibai LB (2017) Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.): an important medicinal and aromatic crop. In: Active ingredients from aromatic and medicinal plants. InTechGoogle Scholar
  210. Zheng XQ, Nagai C, Ashihara H (2004) Pyridine nucleotide cycle and trigonelline (N-methylnicotinic acid) synthesis in developing leaves and fruits of Coffea arabica. Physiol Plant 122:401–411CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  211. Zia T, Hasnain SN, Hasan S (2001) Evaluation of the oral hypoglycaemic effect of Trigonella foenum-graecum L. (methi) in normal mice. J Ethnopharmacol 2:191–195CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. Aasim
    • 1
  • F. S. Baloch
    • 2
  • M. A. Nadeem
    • 2
  • Allah Bakhsh
    • 3
  • M. Sameeullah
    • 4
  • S. Day
    • 5
  1. 1.Faculty of Science, Department of BiotechnologyNecmettin Erbakan UniversityKonyaTurkey
  2. 2.Faculty of Agricultural and Natural Science, Department of Field CropsAbant Izzet Baysal UniversityBoluTurkey
  3. 3.Faculty of Agricultural Sciences and Technologies, Department of Agricultural Genetic EngineeringÖmer Halis Demir UniversityNigdeTurkey
  4. 4.Faculty of Agricultural and Natural Science, Department of HorticultureAbant Izzet Baysal UniversityBoluTurkey
  5. 5.Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Field CropsAnkara UniversityDiskapiTurkey

Personalised recommendations