The Relationship Between Value Co-Creation, Exchange and Stakeholders

  • Andrew Hughes
Part of the Palgrave Studies in Political Marketing and Management book series (Palgrave Studies in Political Marketing and Management)


The relationship between stakeholders and political advertising has always been an important one but in the digital age that relationship is under threat from stakeholders with Machiavellian motives. This chapter outlines an actor-to-actor stakeholder-based conceptual model of value exchange in political marketing, which can be used to explain actor or stakeholder behaviour in any political system.

The chapter discusses the role of political marketing in a relationship marketing context. It looks into the influence which information from digital and social apps is having on strengthening existing relationships and developing new ones. The consequences on politics of this, such as the use of micro targeting strategies and database marketing through organisations such as Cambridge Analytica, is also examined.


Relationship marketing CRM Stakeholders Political marketing Exchange 


  1. Algesheimer, R., Dholakia, U. M., & Herrmann, A. (2005). The social influence of brand community: Evidence from European car clubs. Journal of Marketing, 69(3), 19–34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. American Marketing Association. (2013). Definition of marketing. Retrieved July 15, 2013, from
  3. Andreasen, A. R. (1995). Marketing social change. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  4. Andreasen, A. R. (2006). Social marketing in the 21st century. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  5. Baines, P., Crawford, I., O’Shaughnessy, N., Worcester, R., & Mortimore, R. (2013). Positioning in political marketing: How semiotic analysis adds value to traditional survey approaches. Journal of Marketing Management, 30(1–2), 172–200.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Baines, P. R., Harris, P., & Lewis, B. R. (2002). The political marketing planning process: Improving image and message in strategic target areas. Marketing Intelligence and Planning, 20(1), 6–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Baker, W., Hutchinson, J. W., Moore, D., & Nedungadi, P. (1986). Brand familiarity and advertising: Effects on the evoked set and brand preference. Advances in Consumer Research, 13(1), 637–642.Google Scholar
  8. Bauer, H. H., Huber, F., & Herrmann, A. (1996). Political marketing: An information-economic analysis. European Journal of Marketing, 30(10/11), 152–165.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bissell, J. (1994, November 21). Politics may be negative, but not brand marketing. Brandweek, p. 16.Google Scholar
  10. Blanchfield, T. A. (2006). Culture and politics. Campaigns and Elections, 27(6), 59.Google Scholar
  11. Chen, C.-F., & Chen, J.-M. (2003). The construction of electoral marketing modes in Taiwan. International Journal of Management, 20(2), 143–155.Google Scholar
  12. Dahl, R. A. (1957). The concept of power. Systems Research and Behavioral Science, 2(3), 201–215.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Dann, S., & Hughes, A. (2008). Australian political marketing after Kevin07: Lessons from the 2007 federal election. Monash Business Review, 4(1), 34–37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Dean, D., & Croft, R. (2001). Friends and relations: Long-term approaches to political campaigning. European Journal of Marketing, 35(11/12), 1197–1217.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Dean, J. (2005). Communicative capitalism: Circulation and the foreclosure of politics. Cultural Politics, 1(1), 51–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Eagar, T. (2012), Moderating influences in intracommunity brand engagement: Brand faces and brand heroes performance on the brand stage. PhD thesis, Australian National University.Google Scholar
  17. Egan, J. (2005). Another false dawn? The liberal democrats 2005. Journal of Marketing Management, 21(9–10), 959–978.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Fowler, E. F., & Ridout, T. N. (2013). Negative, angry, and ubiquitous: Political advertising in 2012. The Forum, 10(4), 51–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Garramone, G. M. (1984). Voter responses to negative political ads. Journalism and Mass Communication Quarterly, 61(2), 250–259.Google Scholar
  20. Garramone, G. M., & Smith, S. J. (1984). Reactions to political advertising: Clarifying sponsor effects. Journalism and Mass Communication Quarterly, 61(4), 771–775.Google Scholar
  21. Getz, K. A. (2001). Public affairs and political strategy: Theoretical foundations. Journal of Public Affairs, 1(4), 305–329.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Granik, S. (2005). A reconceptualisation of the antecedents of party activism: A multidisciplinary approach. Political Studies, 53(3), 598–620.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Grönroos, C. (1984). A service quality model and its marketing implications. European Journal of Marketing, 18(4), 36–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Grönroos, C. (1990). Relationship approach to marketing in service contexts: The marketing and organizational behavior interface. Journal of Business Research, 20(1), 3–11.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Grönroos, C. (1991). The marketing strategy continuum: Towards a marketing concept for the 1990s. Management Decision, 29(1), 7–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Grönroos, C. (1994). Quo Vadis, marketing? Toward a relationship marketing paradigm. Journal of Marketing Management, 10(5), 347–360.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Gruszczynski, M. W., Balzer, A., Jacobs, C. M., Smith, K. B., & Hibbing, J. R. (2013). The physiology of political participation. Political Behavior, 35(1), 135–152.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Gummesson, E. (1994). Making relationship marketing operational. International Journal of Service Industry Management, 5(5), 5–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Harris, P., & Sun, H. (2017). The ends justify the means: A global research agenda for political marketing and public affairs. Journal of Public Affairs, 17(4).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Harrop, M. (1990). Political marketing. Parliamentary Affairs, 43(3), 277–291.Google Scholar
  31. Hester, K. S., Robledo, I. C., Barrett, J. D., Peterson, D. R., Hougen, D. P., Day, E. A., & Mumford, M. D. (2012). Causal analysis to enhance creative problem-solving: Performance and effects on mental models. Creativity Research Journal, 24(2–3), 115–133.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Hughes, A. (2003). Can branding theory be applied to marketing political parties? A case study of the Australian Greens. In Australian and New Zealand Marketing Academy, Adelaide, Australia, 1–3 December.Google Scholar
  33. Hughes, A. (2004). The power and the passion: Will celebrity candidates become the norm in future political marketing campaigns. In International Nonprofit and Social Marketing Conference.Google Scholar
  34. Hughes, A. (2007). Personal brands: An exploratory analysis of personal brands in Australian political marketing. In Australia and New Zealand Marketing Academy Conference, 3–5 December, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand.Google Scholar
  35. Hughes, A. (2016). Why negative political ads don’t work on Gen Y. In Advances in Consumer Research (Vol. 44).Google Scholar
  36. Hughes, A., & Dann, S. (2006a). Political marketing 2006: Direct benefit, value and managing the voter relationship. In Australia and New Zealand Marketing Academy Conference, 4–6 December, Brisbane, QLD, Australia.Google Scholar
  37. Hughes, A., & Dann, S. (2006b). Political marketing and stakeholders. In Australia and New Zealand Marketing Academy Conference, 4–6 December, Brisbane, QLD, Australia.Google Scholar
  38. Hughes, A., & Dann, S. (2009). Political marketing and stakeholder engagement. Marketing Theory, 9(2), 243–256.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Ingram, P., & Lees-Marshment, J. (2002). The anglicisation of political marketing: How Blair ‘out-marketed’ Clinton. Journal of Public Affairs, 2(2), 44–56.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Ireland, E., & Nash, P. T. (2001). Winning campaigns online: Strategies for candidates and causes. Bethesda, MD: Science Writers Press.Google Scholar
  41. Jackson, N. (2005). Vote winner or a nuisance: Email and elected politicians’ relationship with their constituents. Journal of Nonprofit & Public Sector Marketing, 14(1–2), 91–108.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Kotler, P., & Kotler, N. (1999). Political marketing: Generating effective candidates, campaigns, and causes. InHandbook of political marketing (pp. 3–18). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  43. Kotler, P., Roberto, N., & Lee, N. R. (2002). Social marketing: Improving the quality of life. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  44. Lang, A. (2000). The limited capacity model of mediated message processing. Journal of Communication, 50(1), 46–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Lau, R. R., & Rovner, I. B. (2009). Negative campaigning. Annual Review of Political Science, 12, 285–306.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Lau, R. R., Sigelman, L., & Rovner, I. B. (2007). The effects of negative political campaigns: A meta-analytic reassessment. Journal of Politics, 69(4), 1176–1209.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Lees-Marshment, J. (2001a). The marriage of politics and marketing. Political Studies, 49(4), 692–713.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Lees-Marshment, J. (2001b). The product, sales and market-oriented party-how labour learnt to market the product, not just the presentation. European Journal of Marketing, 35(9/10), 1074–1084.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Lees-Marshment, J. (2014). Political marketing: Principles and applications. Routledge.Google Scholar
  50. Lusch, R. F., & Vargo, S. L. (2012). The forum on markets and marketing (FMM) advancing service-dominant logic. Marketing Theory, 12(2), 193–199.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Marcus, G. E., Russell Neuman, W., & MacKuen, M. (2000). Affective intelligence and political judgment. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  52. Merritt, S. (1984). Negative political advertising: Some empirical findings. Journal of Advertising, 13(3), 27–38.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. McMillan, S. J., & Morrison, M. (2006). Coming of age with the internet: A qualitative exploration of how the internet has become an integral part of young people’s lives. New Media & Society, 8(1), 73–95.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Mitchell, R. K., Agle, B. R., & Wood, D. J. (1997). Toward a theory of stakeholder identification and salience: Defining the principle of who and what really counts. Academy of Management Review, 22(4), 853–886.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Needham, C. (2005). Brand leaders: Clinton, Blair and the limitations of the permanent campaign. Political Studies, 53(2), 343–361.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Newman, B. I. (1999a). Handbook of political marketing. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  57. Newman, B. I. (1999b). The mass marketing of politics: Democracy in an age of manufactured images. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  58. Newman, B. (2002). The role of marketing in politics. Journal of Political Marketing, 1(1), 1–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. O’Cass, A. (1996). Political marketing and the marketing concept. European Journal of Marketing, 30(10/11), 37–53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. O’Cass, A. (2001). Political marketing-an investigation of the political marketing concept and political market orientation in Australian politics. European Journal of Marketing, 35(9/10), 1003–1025.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Ormrod, R. P., & Henneberg, S. C. (2010). An investigation into the relationship between political activity levels and political market orientation. European Journal of Marketing, 44(3/4), 382–400.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Ormrod, R. P., Henneberg, S. C., Forward, N., Miller, J., & Tymms, L. (2007). Political marketing in untraditional campaigns: The case of David Cameron’s Conservative Party leadership victory. Journal of Public Affairs, 7(3), 235–248.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Ormrod, R. P., Henneberg, S. C. M., & O’Shaughnessy, N. J. (2013). Political marketing: Theory and concepts. Sage Publications Limited.Google Scholar
  64. O’Shaughnessy, N. (2001). The marketing of political marketing. European Journal of Marketing, 35(9/10), 1047–1057.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. O’Shaughnessy, N., & Henneberg, S. (2007). The selling of the President 2004: A marketing perspective. Journal of Public Affairs, 7(3), 249–268.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Pfeffer, J. (1981). Power in organizations (Vol. 33). Marshfield, MA: Pitman.Google Scholar
  67. Pinkleton, B. (1997). The effects of negative comparative political advertising on candidate evaluations and advertising evaluations: An exploration. Journal of Advertising, 26(1), 19–29.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Reeves, P., de Chernatony, L., & Carrigan, M. (2006). Building a political brand: Ideology or voter-driven strategy. The Journal of Brand Management, 13(6), 418–428.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Rinehart, D. (2008). Baby talk: How gender issues affected media coverage of the child-care debate in the last federal election. Canadian Journal of Media Studies, 4(1), 1–40.Google Scholar
  70. Robinson, J. (2004). Repackaging our politicians. NZ Marketing Magazine, 23(5), 12–19.Google Scholar
  71. Rosen, J. (2006, June 27). The people formerly known as the audience. Pressthink.Google Scholar
  72. Sanders, D., & Norris, P. (2005). The impact of political advertising in the 2001 UK general election. Political Research Quarterly, 58(4), 525–536.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Scammell, M. (1995). Designer politics: How elections are won. London: Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Scammell, M. (2007). Political brands and consumer citizens: The rebranding of Tony Blair. The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 611(1), 176–192.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Sheth, J. N., & Uslay, C. (2007). Implications of the revised definition of marketing: From exchange to value creation. Journal of Public Policy & Marketing, 26(2), 302–307.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Surlin, S. H., & Gordon, T. F. (1977). How values affect attitudes toward direct reference political advertising. Journalism and Mass Communication Quarterly, 54(1), 89–98.Google Scholar
  77. Vargo, S. L., & Lusch, R. F. (2004a). Evolving to a new dominant logic for marketing. Journal of Marketing, 68(1), 1–17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Vargo, S. L., & Lusch, R. F. (2004b). The four service marketing myths remnants of a goods-based, manufacturing model. Journal of Service Research, 6(4), 324–335.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Vargo, S. L., & Lusch, R. F. (2008). Why ‘service’? Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 36(1), 25–38.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Weber, M. (1947). The theory of economic and social organization (A. M. Henderson & T. Parsons, Trans.). New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Andrew Hughes
    • 1
  1. 1.Research School of ManagementAustralian National UniversityCanberraAustralia

Personalised recommendations