Advertisement

The Allergy Epidemic

  • Kathleen Grisanti
  • Mitchell H. Grayson
Chapter

Abstract

Globally, millions of people suffer from allergic diseases, and evidence suggests the prevalence is increasing. This chapter reviews data supporting an “allergy epidemic” demonstrating the increase in atopic disease over the last 50 years. Overall, this trend is evident in Westernized societies, while non-Westernized societies appear to be less affected. Currently it is unclear what is driving this allergy epidemic; however many hypotheses have been developed, including the hygiene, barrier regulation, and microbiome hypotheses. These hypotheses will all be discussed in this chapter. Developing a better understanding of the mechanisms driving atopic disease will lead to novel approaches for disease modification and prevention.

Keywords

Allergic rhinitis Atopic dermatitis Food allergy Asthma Allergy epidemic Prevalence Hygiene hypothesis Microbiome hypothesis Barrier hypothesis Viral hypothesis 

References

  1. 1.
    Loftus PA, Wise SK. Epidemiology and economic burden of asthma. Int Forum of Allergy Rhinol. 2015;5(S1):S7–S10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Nathan R, Meltzer E, Seiner J, Storms W. Prevalence of allergic rhinitis in the United States. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 1997;99(6):S808–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Eckert L, Gupta S, Amand C, Gadkari A, Mahajan P, Gelfand J. Impact of atopic dermatitis on health-related quality of life and productivity in adults in the United States: an analysis using the National Health and Wellness Survey. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2017;77(2):274–279.e3.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Wawrzyniak P, Akdis C, Finkelman F, Rothenberg M. Advances and highlights in mechanisms of allergic disease in 2015. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2016;137(6):1681–96.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Sullivan PW, Slejko JF, Ghushchyan VH, et al. The relationship between asthma, asthma control and economic outcomes in the United States. J Asthma. 2014;51:769–78.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Ring J. History of allergy in antiquity. In: Bergmann KC, Ring J, editors. History of allergy. Unionville: Karger; 2014.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Platts-Mills T. The allergy epidemics: 1870–2010. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2015;136:3–13.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    World Health Organization. White book on allergy 2011–2012 executive summary. Geneva; 2012.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Asher M, Montefort S, Björkstén B, Lai C, Strachan D, Weiland S, et al. Worldwide time trends in the prevalence of symptoms of asthma, allergic rhinoconjunctivitis, and eczema in childhood: ISAAC Phases One and Three repeat multicountry cross-sectional surveys. Lancet. 2006;368(9537):733–43.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Arrieta M, Stiemsma L, Dimitriu P, Thorson L, Russell S, Yurist-Doutsch S, et al. Early infancy microbial and metabolic alterations affect risk of childhood asthma. Sci Transl Med. 2015;7(307):307ra152.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    World Health Organization. Global surveillance, prevention and control of chronic respiratory diseases: a comprehensive approach. Geneva; 2007.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Gergen PJ, Mullally DF, Evans RE. National survey of prevalence of asthma among children in the United States, 1976 to 1980. Pediatrics. 1988;81:1–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Gergen P, Arbes S, Calatroni A, Mitchell H, Zeldin D. Total IgE levels and asthma prevalence in the US population: results from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005–2006. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2009;124(3):447–53.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Jackson K, Howie L, Akinbami L. Trends in allergic conditions among children: United States, 1997–2011. NCHS Data Brief. 2013;121:1–8.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Ahluwalia S, Peng R, Breysse P, Diette G, Curtin-Brosnan J, Aloe C, et al. Mouse allergen is the major allergen of public health relevance in Baltimore City. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2013;132(4):830–835.e2.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Sheehan W, Permaul P, Petty C, Coull B, Baxi S, Gaffin J, et al. Association between allergen exposure in Inner-City schools and asthma morbidity among students. JAMA Pediatr. 2017;171(1):31.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Garg N, Silverberg J. Epidemiology of childhood atopic dermatitis. Clin Dermatol. 2015;33(3):281–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Silverberg J. Public health burden and epidemiology of atopic dermatitis. Dermatol Clin. 2017;35(3):283–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Sicherer S, Sampson H. Food allergy: epidemiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2014;133:291–307.e5.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    McGowan E, Peng R, Salo P, Zeldin D, Keet C. Changes in food-specific IgE over time in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract. 2016;4(4):713–20.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Sicherer S, Muñoz-Furlong A, Godbold J, Sampson H. US prevalence of self-reported peanut, tree nut, and sesame allergy: 11-year follow-up. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2010;125(6):1322–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Branum A, Lukacs S. Food allergy among children in the United States. Pediatrics. 2009;124(6):1549–55.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Prescott S, Pawankar R, Allen K, Campbell D, Sinn J, Fiocchi A, et al. A global survey of changing patterns of food allergy burden in children. World Allergy Organ J. 2013;6(1):21.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Osborne N, Koplin J, Martin P, Gurrin L, Lowe A, Matheson M, et al. Prevalence of challenge-proven IgE-mediated food allergy using population-based sampling and predetermined challenge criteria in infants. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2011;127(3):668–676.e2.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Dhanapala P, De Silva C, Doran T, Suphioglu C. Cracking the egg: an insight into egg hypersensitivity. Mol Immunol. 2015;66(2):375–83.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Lee S. IgE-mediated food allergies in children: prevalence, triggers, and management. Korean J Pediatr. 2017;60(4):99.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Sampson H. Food allergy: past, present and future. Allergol Int. 2016;65(4):363–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Du Toit G, Roberts G, Sayre P, Bahnson H, Radulovic S, Santos A, et al. Randomized trial of peanut consumption in infants at risk for peanut allergy. N Engl J Med. 2015;372(9):803–13.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Du Toit G, Sayre P, Roberts G, Sever M, Lawson K, Bahnson H, et al. Effect of avoidance on peanut allergy after early peanut consumption. N Engl J Med. 2016;374(15):1435–43.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Ownby DR. Environmental factors versus genetic determinants of childhood inhalant allergens. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 1990;86(3):279–87.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Ferreira MA, et al. Shared genetic origin of asthma, hay fever and eczema elucidates allergic disease biology. Nat Genet. 2017;49(12):1752–7.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Merenholz I, Grosche S, Kalb B, et al. Genome-wide association study identifies the SERPINB gene cluster as a susceptibility locus for food allergy. Nat Commun. 2017;8(1):1056.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Iqbal S, Oraka E, Chew G, Flanders W. Association between birthplace and current asthma: the role of environment and acculturation. Am J Public Health. 2014;104(S1):S175–82.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Silverberg J, Simpson E, Durkin H, Joks R. Prevalence of allergic disease in foreign-born american children. JAMA Pediatr. 2013;167(6):554.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Stein M, Hrusch C, Gozdz J, Igartua C, Pivniouk V, Murray S, et al. Innate immunity and asthma risk in amish and hutterite farm children. N Engl J Med. 2016;375(5):411–21.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Wesemann D, Nagler C. The microbiome, timing, and barrier function in the context of allergic disease. Immunity. 2016;44:728–38.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Platts-Mills T, Commins S. Emerging antigens involved in allergic responses. Curr Opin Immunol. 2013;25(6):769–74.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Brandt E, Myers J, Ryan P, Hershey G. Air pollution and allergic diseases. Curr Opin Pediatr. 2015;27(6):724–35.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Xia M, Viera-Hutchins L, Garcia-Lloret M, Rivas M, Wise P, McGhee S, Chatila Z, Daher N, Sioutas C, Chatila T. Vehicular exhaust particles promote allergic airway inflammation through an aryl hydrocarbon receptor-notch signaling cascade. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2015;136(2):441.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Gern J. Promising candidates for allergy prevention. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2015;136(1):23–8.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Awasthi S, Singh B, Welliver R, Dietert R. Lung dendritic cell developmental programming, environmental stimuli, and asthma in early periods of life. J Allergy. 2012;2012:1–10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Fujimura K, Sitarik A, Havstad S, Lin D, Levan S, Fadrosh D, et al. Neonatal gut microbiota associates with childhood multisensitized atopy and T cell differentiation. Nat Med. 2016;22(10):1187–91.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Rachid R, Chatila T. The role of the gut microbiota in food allergy. Curr Opin Pediatr. 2016;28(6):748–53.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Welliver R. Immunology of respiratory syncytial virus infection: eosinophils, cytokines, chemokines and asthma. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2000;19(8):780–3.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Welliver R. RSV and chronic asthma. Lancet. 1995;346(8978):789–90.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Welliver R. Upper respiratory infections in asthma. J Allergy Immunol. 1983;72(4):341–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kathleen Grisanti
    • 1
    • 2
  • Mitchell H. Grayson
    • 3
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of Pediatrics, Division of Allergy and ImmunologyNationwide Children’s Hospital – The Ohio State University College of MedicineColumbusUSA
  2. 2.Department of Otolaryngology, Division of Allergy and ImmunologyThe Ohio State University College of MedicineColumbusUSA
  3. 3.Department of Pediatrics, Division of Allergy and ImmunologyNationwide Children’s Hospital, The Ohio State University College of MedicineColumbusUSA
  4. 4.Center for Clinical and Translational ResearchThe Research Institute at Nationwide Children’s HospitalColumbusUSA

Personalised recommendations