Cell-Based Nanotechnology—Interactions and Energetics
Cells have natural nanometer (nm) scale structures and nanotechnologies active inside. In earlier chapters, we have addressed enough of the nm-dimensional aspects of cells. Cell membrane thickness is of the order of 3–5 nm [for details, see Ashrafuzzaman and Tuszynski (Membrane Biophysics. Springer-Verlag, Berlin Heidelberg, 2012a)], membrane constituent lipid cross section is of the order of 0.6 nm2 (Eze in Biochemical Education 19(4), 1991), membrane-transporting integral ion channels maintain nm dimensions in lengths and cross sections as their dimensions are limited within membrane dimensions, microtubule filaments are of the order of 25 nm diameters, etc.
- Md. Ashrafuzzaman and Jack Tuszynski, Membrane Biophysics, Springer-Verlag (Berlin Heidelberg), Sept., 2012a.Google Scholar
- MICHAEL O EZE. Phase Transitions in Phospholipid Bilayers: Lateral Phase Separations Play Vital Roles in Biomembranes. BIOCHEMICAL EDUCATION 19(4) 1991.Google Scholar
- Md. Ashrafuzzaman and J. Tuszynski, Regulation of channel function due to coupling with a lipid bilayer. 2012b. J. Comput. Theor. Nanosci. 9, 564–570.Google Scholar
- Dalibor L. Sekulić, Miljko V. Satarić. An improved nanoscale transmission line model of microtubule: The effect of nonlinearity on the propagation of electrical signals. FACTA UNIVERSITATIS, Series: Electronics and Energetics Vol. 28, No1, March 2015, pp. 133–142, https://doi.org/10.2298/fuee1501133s.
- C-Y. Tseng, Md. Ashrafuzzaman, J. Mane, J. Kapty, J. Mercer, J. Tuszynski, Entropic fragment based approach to aptamer design. Chem Biol Drug Des (2011) 78, 1–13.Google Scholar
- Tseng, C.-Y. and Tuszynski, J.A. Drug Discovery Today. 2015. A unified approach to computational drug discovery. Volume 20, 1328–1336.Google Scholar
- JC Biro. Amino acid size, charge, hydropathy indices and matrices for protein structure analysis. Theor Biol Med Model. 2006; 3: 15.Google Scholar
- Kakoli Mitra, Iban Ubarretxena-Belandia, Tomohiko Taguchi, Graham Warren, and Donald M. Engelma. Modulation of the bilayer thickness of exocytic pathway membranes by membrane proteins rather than cholesterol. PNAS March 23, 2004, vol. 101, no. 12, 4083–4088.Google Scholar
- Andersen OS, Koeppe RE II. Bilayer thickness and membrane protein function: an energetic perspective. Annu Rev Biophys Biomol Struct. 2007;36:107–30.Google Scholar
- Md. Ashrafuzzaman, O. S. Andersen, R. N. McElhaney, The antimicrobial peptide gramicidin S permeabilizes phospholipid bilayer membranes without forming discrete ion channels, Biochim. Biophys. Acta—Biomembranes (2008) 1778, 2814–2822.Google Scholar
- Ashrafuzzaman M, Tseng CY, Kapty J, Mercer JR, Tuszynski JA. A computationally designed DNA aptamer template with specific binding to phosphatidylserine. Nucleic Acid Ther. 2013 Dec;23(6):418–26.Google Scholar
- Cox, R.T., ed. (1961) The Algebra of Probable Inference, The Johns Hopkins Press.Google Scholar
- Jaynes, E.T. 1957b. Information theory and statistical mechanics II. Phys. Rev. 108, 171–190.Google Scholar
- Shore, J.E. and Johnson, R.W. (1981) Properties of cross-entropy minimization. IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 27, 472–482.Google Scholar
- Berg, E.L. (2014) Systems biology in drug discovery and development. Drug Discov. Today 19, 113–125.Google Scholar
- CHEN, C.-C., TSENG, C.-Y., and DONG, J.-J. (2007). New entropy-based method for variables selection and its application to the debris flow hazard assessment. Eng. Geol. 94, 19–24.Google Scholar
- Md Ashrafuzzaman, M A Lampson, D V Greathouse, R E Koeppe, O S Andersen, (2006) Manipulating lipid bilayer material properties using biologically active amphipathic molecules. Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter 18 (28):S1235–S1255.Google Scholar
- M. Ashrafuzzaman and C.-Y. Tseng. 2016. Method for direct detection of lipid binding agents in membrane. US 9529006 B1. https://www.google.com/patents/US9529006.