European Socialism and the French–German Reconciliation
Through a comparative approach, Vodovar analyses the considerations and concrete attitude of French, German and Italian socialist parties towards French–German relations until the signature of the Elysée Treaty. She argues that, despite a stated desire for reconciliation—considered a necessary but insufficient condition for the establishment of a peaceful and democratic order in Europe—divergences and mutual distrust prevailed mostly on the convergence of opinion. The article analyses how reconciliation, and European integration as the framework of this reconciliation, had to deal with contentious memories, different (even opposing) international interests and political domestic calculations. Last, Vodovar wonders if the experience of the wars, and of authoritarian and totalitarian regimes, contributes to the creation of a generation effect and a new, common political culture.