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Mycoremediation of Common Agricultural Pesticides

  • Chitra Pandey
  • Deepti Prabha
  • Yogesh Kumar Negi
Chapter
Part of the Fungal Biology book series (FUNGBIO)

Abstract

Pesticides were developed to protect crops from different pests and diseases caused by them. Being quick in action, these chemicals got admired in all agricultural systems, and over the time, they became indispensable in agricultural production. But unfortunately, over the time, their anarchic, frequent inexpedient use developed resistance in pests, and also their increasing concentration started causing harm to nontarget organisms. Afterward, their deleterious effects on ecosystem, humans, and animals were also reported by different scientists. A number of pesticides such as benzo[a]pyrene, 2, 4-D (2, 4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid), endosulfan, etc., are considered hazardous because of their carcinogenic, teratogenic, and mutagenic effects. Due to their severe side effects, extensive research to develop techniques for effective degradation of these chemicals into nontoxic and ecologically safe products is being carried out all over the world. Rapid advances in the pesticide degradation are on the horizon. Bioremediation of such chemicals employing certain bacteria, fungi, and plants to degrade or transform them to non-harmful end products has been found effective. Among the above, fungi have been identified as better choice to degrade a number of such compounds more efficiently. The enormous effect of fungi in pesticide degradation has increased the interest in their use for bioremediation and is known as “mycoremediation.” A number of biochemical reactions are involved in pesticides degradation such as alkylation, dealkylation, amide or ester hydrolysis, dehalogenation, dehydrogenation, oxidoreduction, condensation, etc. This chapter represents an overview of involvement of various fungi in pesticide degradation. Certain fungi, such as Phanerochaete chrysosporium, Phlebia aurea, Aspergillus niger, Phoma glomerata, Chrysosporium pannorum, etc., have been found capable to degrade insecticide, herbicides, and fungicides. Generally the degradation of such chemicals is done by oxidation, decarboxylation, and enzymatically by hydrolyzing enzymes secreted by them. Therefore, mycoremediation can be considered as a cost-effective and eco-friendly approach for the degradation of soil contaminants and water pollutants and for human welfare in a long run. Since fungi grow and survive in diverse agroecosystems, these have an added advantage to transform or degrade the hazardous pesticides wherever they have been applied. Therefore, if a suitable organism is identified and applied in agroecosystem that can make it safe for all living beings.

Keywords

Bioremediation Parathion Malathion Diuron Atrazine Vinclozolin Phytoremediation Pesticides Mycoremediation 

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© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Chitra Pandey
    • 1
  • Deepti Prabha
    • 2
  • Yogesh Kumar Negi
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Basic SciencesCollege of Forestry (VCSG UUHF), RanichauriTehri GarhwalIndia
  2. 2.Department of Seed Science and Technology, School of Agriculture and Allied Sciences, Chauras CampusHNB Garhwal UniversitySrinagar GarhwalIndia

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