Advertisement

Karst Aquifers in the Arid World of Africa and the Middle East: Sustainability or Humanity?

  • Zoran Stevanović
Chapter
Part of the The Handbook of Environmental Chemistry book series (HEC, volume 68)

Abstract

Karst aquifers are widely utilized water sources and in many countries represent the sole resource for potable water supply and irrigation of arable land. Tapping of karstic waters from springs and diverting them by gravity channels and then aqueducts has a long history and has been significant for the development of many karstic regions. Many cities were established in the vicinity of major springs. But karst water users in many places are facing problems caused mainly by unstable discharge regimes of dynamic karst aquifers or rapid contamination that takes place when pollutants are present in catchment areas. The situation is especially problematic in the regions with arid climates where, besides having limited aquifer recharge, there has been increased pressure on karst aquifers due to population growth, fast urbanization, or industrialization. There are many locations where aquifer systems are already over-exploited and where local, regional, or transboundary conflicts may further disturb water supply for humanitarian purposes. This chapter discusses some examples from northern and eastern Africa and the Middle East, presents possible technical solutions that could mitigate such a situation, and provides recommendations concerning research methodology and management solutions.

Keywords

Arid environment Conflicts Karst aquifer Recharge Solutions 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The author gratefully acknowledges valuable data provided by Farooq A. Dar, Jiang Guanghui, Ezzat Raeisi, and Benjamin Tobin on karst aquifers utilization in their respective countries and regions. The experiences gained while working as consultant of the UN/FAO and some prominent companies in several projects in the arid part of the world are essential for data presented in this study.

References

  1. 1.
    Ford D, Williams P (2007) Karst hydrogeology and geomorphology. Wiley, Chichester, p 576CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Stevanović Z (2017) Karst aquifers as one of the major global water sources – state of art and perspectives. Book of abstracts of 44th IAH congress “Groundwater Heritage and Sustainability”, Dubrovnik, T5.1.1, p 278Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Stevanović Z (ed) (2015) Karst aquifers – characterization and engineering, Professional practice in earth science. Springer Intern. Publ., Cham, p 692Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Castany G (1984) Hydrogeological features of carbonate rocks. In: LaMoreaux PE, Wilson BM, Memon BA (eds) Guide to the hydrology of carbonate rocks, IHP studies and reports in hydrology, vol 41. UNESCO, Paris, pp 47–67Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Bonacci O (1993) Karst spring hydrographs as indicators of karst aquifers. Hydrol Sci J 38(1):51–62CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Palmer AN, Palmer MV, Sasowsky ID (eds) (1999) Karst modeling, vol 5. Karst Water Institute, Charles Town, p 272Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Kiraly L (2002) Karstification and groundwater flow. In: Gabrovšek F (ed) Evolution of karst: from prekarst to cessation. Institut za raziskovanje krasa ZRC SAZU, Postojna, Ljubljana, pp 155–190Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Kresic N (2013) Water in karst. Management, vulnerability and restoration. McGraw Hill, New York, p 708Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Goldscheider N (2010) Delineation of spring protection zones. In: Kresic N, Stevanovic Z (eds) Groundwater hydrology of springs. Engineering, theory, management and sustainability. Elsevier Inc. BH, Amsterdam, pp 305–338CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Solomon S, Qin D, Manning M, Chen Z, Marquis M, Averyt KB, Tignor M, Miller HL (eds) (2007) Climate change 2007 – physical science basis: contribution of working group I to the fourth assessment report of the IPCC. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Vaughn MD (2005) Arid climates. In: Oliver EJ (ed) Encyclopedia of world climatology. Springer, Dordrecht, pp 85–89CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    UNESCO – GRAPHIC project. www.graphicnetwork.net. Accessed 26 Sep 2016; EU project: Climate Changes and Water Supply CCWaterS. http://www.ccwaters.eu/. Accessed 26 Sep 2016
  13. 13.
    Burke JJ, Moench HM (2000) Groundwater and society: resources, tensions and opportunities. Spec ed. of DESA and ISET, UN public, ST/ESA/265, New York, p 170Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Stevanović Z, Krešić N, Kukurić N (eds) (2016) Karst without boundaries. CRC Press/Balkema, EH Leiden; Taylor & Francis Group, London, p 364Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Richts A, Struckmeier WF, Zaepke M (2011) WHYMAP and the groundwater resources of the world 1:25,000,000. In: Jones JAA (ed) Sustaining groundwater resources, pp 159–173CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Goldscheider N, Chen Zh and the WOKAM Team (2014) The world karst aquifer mapping project – WOKAM. In: Kukurić N, Stevanović Z, Krešić N (eds) Proceedings of the DIKTAS conference: “Karst without Boundaries”, Trebinje, 11–15 June 2014, p 391Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Chen Z, Auler AS, Bakalowicz M, Drew D, Griger F, Hartmann J, Jiang G, Moosdorf N, Richts A, Stevanović Z, Veni G, Goldscheider N (2017) The world karst aquifer mapping project – concept, mapping procedure and map of Europe. Hydrogeol J 25:771–785CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Bonacci O (1987) Karst hydrology with special reference to the Dinaric karst. Springer, Berlin, p 184CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Milanović P (2000) Geological engineering in karst. Zebra Publ. Ltd, Belgrade, p 347Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    FAO (2016) AQUASTAT website. www.fao.org/nr/aquastat/. Accessed 22 Oct 2016
  21. 21.
    Laureano P (2001) The water atlas. Traditional knowledge to combat desertification. Bollati Boringhieri edit. Turin. 2nd edition by UNESCO-ROSTE, Venice, p 437Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Stevanović Z, Milanović P (2015) Engineering challenges in karst. Acta Carsol 44(3):381–399CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Reade J (1978) Studies in Assyrian geography, part 1: Sennacherib and the waters of Ninveh. Rev D’Assyriol D’Archéol Orient 72(47–72):157–175Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Stevanović Z (2010) Utilization and regulation of springs. In: Kresic N, Stevanovic Z (eds) Groundwater hydrology of springs. Engineering, theory, management and sustainability. Elsevier Inc. BH, Amsterdam, pp 339–388CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Frumkin A, Shimron A (2006) Tunnel engineering in the Iron Age: geoarchaeology of the Siloam Tunnel, Jerusalem. J Archaeol Sci 33:227–237CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Water scarcity map (projected in 2025). http://www.waternunc.com/gb/map2025.htm. Accessed 22 Dec 2016
  27. 27.
    Jiang G, Co-Chair of KC IAH; IRCK, Guilin, China; University of Guelph, ON; Communicated on 21 Nov 2016Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Lu Y (2005) Karst water resources and geo-ecology in typical regions of China. In: Stevanović Z, Milanović P (eds) Water resources and environmental problems in karst CVIJIĆ 2005, Spec. ed. FMG, Belgrade, pp 19–26Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Tobin W, Benjamin, PhD, National Park Service, Washington, D.C. USA; Communicated on 11 Dec 2016Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Farooq DA, Assist Prof., University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India; Communicated on 3 Dec 2016Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Stevanović Z, Goldscheider N, Chen Z, the WOKAM Team (2016b) WOKAM – the world karst aquifer mapping project, examples from South East Europe, Near and Middle East and Eastern Africa. In: Stevanović Z, Krešić N, Kukurić N (eds) Karst without boundaries. CRC Press/Balkema, EH Leiden; Taylor and Francis Group, London, pp 39–51CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    IPCC (2007) The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. www.ipcc.ch; www.ipcc.ch/pdf/technical-papers/climate-change-water-en.pdf. Accessed 20 Aug 2016Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Döll P, Fiedler K (2008) Global-scale modelling of groundwater recharge. Hydrol Earth Syst Sci 12:863–885CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Treidel H, Martin-Bordes JL, Gurdak JJ (eds) (2012) Climate changes effects on groundwater resources. A global synthesis of findings and recommendations. IAH, International contribution to hydrogeology, vol 27. CRC/Balkema, Leiden, p 401Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Brown L (2012) Full planet, empty plates: the new geopolitics of food scarcity. Earth Policy Institute, W.W. Norton and Co., New York, p 144Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Brown L (2013) The real threat to our future is peak water. The Observer, 6 July 2013Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Margat J, van der Gun J (2013) Groundwater around the world: a geographic synopsis. CRC Press, Taylor and Francis Group, Boca Raton, p 348Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Zektser SI, Everett GL (2004) Groundwater resources of the world and their use, IHP-VI, series on groundwater no. 6. UNESCO, Paris, p 346Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Sahuquillo A (1986) Recursos hidraulicos en zonas kàrsticas. Experianca espaňola. (Water resources in karst areas. Spanish experience) Jornadas sobre el Karst en Euskadi, San Sebastian, pp 341–363Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Parise M, Gunn J (eds) (2007) Natural and anthropogenic hazards in karst areas: recognition, analysis and mitigation. Geol. Soc. London, sp. publ., p 279Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Parise M (2015) Hazard in karst environment and mitigation measures. In: Stevanović Z (ed) Karst aquifers – characterization and engineering, Professional practice in earth science. Springer Intern. Publ., Cham, pp 601–613Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    UNCCD (2012) Convention to combat desertification. http://www.unccd.int/en/about-the-convention/Pages/Text-Part-I.aspx. Accessed 8 Jan 2017
  43. 43.
    Maran A, Stevanović Z (2009) Iraqi Kurdistan environment – an invitation to discover. IK Cons. Eng. and ITSC Ltd., Belgrade, London, p 211Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Stevanović Z, Iurkiewicz A (2004) Hydrogeology of northern Iraq, Regional hydrogeology and aquifer systems, vol 2, Spec. ed. FAO (Spec. Emerg. Prog. Serv.), Rome, p 175Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Moench M, Burke J, Moench Y (2003) Rethinking the approach to groundwater and food security. Water reports, vol 24. FAO, Rome, p 62Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Stevanović Z, Iurkiewicz A (2009) Groundwater management in northern Iraq. Hydrogeol J 17(2):367–378CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Meinzer OE (1920) Quantitative methods of estimating groundwater supplies. Bull Geol Soc Am 31:329–328CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Custodio E (1992) Hydrogeological and hydrochemical aspects of aquifer overexploitation. In: Summers et al (eds) Selected papers in hydrogeology, vol 3. International Association of Hydrogeologists, Verlag Heinz Heise, Hannover, pp 3–28Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Custodio E (2002) Aquifer overexploitation. What does it mean? Hydrogeol J 10(2):254–277CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Simić M, Stevanović Z (1989) Hidrogeološke karakteristike i vodosnabdevanje područja Oum el Bouaghi (Alžir). (Hydrogeology and water supply of Oum el Bouaghi area, Algeria). Zapisnici SGD 1987–1989, Belgrade, pp 313–320Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Balint Z, Stevanović Z, Gadain H, Milanović S, Trivić B et al (2012) Hydrogeological survey and assessment of selected areas in Somaliland and Puntland. Technical Report No. W-20, FAO-SWALIM (GCP/SOM/049/EC) Project, NairobiGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Stevanović Z, Trivić B (2016) Hydrogeological study of Gedo Region, Somalia. Report. Docum. Fund of FAO-SWALIM, Nairobi, p 155Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Stevanović Z, Papastavrou L (2001) Remedial measures in water use practices of drought affected areas. Report. Docum. Fund of FAO Coordination Office for Northern Iraq, ErbilGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Green TR, Taniguchi M, Kooi H et al (2011) Beneath the surface of global change: impacts of climate change on groundwater. J Hydrol 405:532–560CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Margat J, Pennequin D, Roux JC (2013) History of French hydrogeology. In: Howden N, Mather J (eds) History of hydrogeology, International contribution to hydrogeology, vol 28. CRC Press/Balkema, Taylor and Francis Group, London, pp 59–99Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Sahara and Sahel Observatory (OSS) (2004) The north-western Sahara aquifer system. A basin awareness. Hydrogeology, vol II. Tunisia, p 322Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Burdon D, Safadi C (1963) Ras-El-Ain: the great karst spring of Mesopotamia. An hydrogeological study. Hydrol J 1(1):58–95CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Mijatović B (2006) Geological and hydrogeological framework of integrated water resources management in Libya. Report. Docum. Fund of Geological Survey of Serbia, BelgradeGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Raeisi E, Dr, Prof. of Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran; Communicated on 20 Oct 2013Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Soltani KP (2015) The water crisis and management of karst groundwater resources in Iran. J Appl Environ Biol Sci 5(8S):561–566Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Milanović S, Vasić L (2015) Monitoring of karst groundwater. In: Stevanović Z (ed) Karst aquifers – characterization and engineering, Professional practice in earth science. Springer Intern. Publ., Cham, pp 335–359Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Hanson G (1987) Groundwater dam research and development in the Haraghe Region, Ethiopia. NNWC, SIDA, Addis AbabaGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Nilsson A (1988) Groundwater dams for small-scale water supply. Intermediate Technology Publication, London, p 69CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Nissen-Petersen E, Lee M (1990) Sub-surface and sand storage dams, Harvesting rainwater in semi-arid Africa, manual no. 5. ASAL, Nairobi, p 43Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    Stevanović Z (2001) Subsurface dams – efficient groundwater regulation scheme, vol 18. Brayati Press, Erbil, pp 122–130Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    Stevanović Z (2016) Damming underground flow to enhance recharge of karst aquifers in the arid and semi-arid worlds. Environ Earth Sci 75(1):35.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s12665-015-5086-zCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Yuan D (1990) Construction of underground dams on subterranean streams in South China karst. Institute of Karst Geology, GuilinGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Pyne GD (1995) Groundwater recharge and wells. A guide to aquifer storage recovery. Lewis Publishers, CRC Press, Boca Raton, p 376Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    Goldscheider N, Drew D (eds) (2007) Methods in karst hydrogeology, International contribution to hydrogeology, IAH, vol 26. Taylor and Francis/Balkema, London, p 264Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division (2016) The World’s Cities in 2016 – Data Booklet (ST/ESA/SER.A/392)Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    United Nations (2016) The World’s population. www.unpopulation.org. Accessed 17 Nov 2016
  72. 72.
    World Bank Group (2016) High and dry: climate change, water, and the economy. World Bank, Washington. https://openknowledge.worldbank.org/handle/10986/23665. United Nations, 2015, Millennium development goals report. New York, p 75

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Zoran Stevanović
    • 1
  1. 1.Centre for Karst Hydrogeology, Department of HydrogeologyUniversity of Belgrade, Faculty of Mining & GeologyBelgradeSerbia

Personalised recommendations