In Situ Detection of Sewage Pollution and Its Sources in Aquatic Ecosystems

  • Karen ReynoldsEmail author
  • Scott Reynolds


Sewage discharges pose a threat to human, animal, and ecosystem health, and disrupt recreational pursuits like fishing and beachgoing. Environmental Canine Services, LLC selects, trains and fields dog-handler teams to source track sewage from leaking sewer lines, faulty septic systems, and illicit pipe connections. The teams cost-effectively locate or isolate sewage discharge sources far more quickly than standard methods (e.g., in hours/days). Information about the origins of this application, the types of dogs sought and used, elements of handler training and testing, and types of stakeholders partnered with to date is also provided. Recommendations are made for further research into the scent components of this target, and to better assess individual dog performances, with an aim of promoting greater use of this effective but still underutilized application.


Dog Detection Water monitoring Water quality Water pollution Illicit sewage input Sewage discharge Sewage detection Aquatic ecosystems Stormwater Septic Septage 



We thank Laurie Van De Werfhorst and Jill Murray for their contribution to this chapter (Box 5.1 and Table 5.1), and for their enthusiasm and open-mindedness to incorporating dogs into sewage detection efforts.


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Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Environmental Canine Services LLCOtisfieldUSA

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