Zoomorph Identification

  • Elizabeth E. Flaherty
  • Arthur O. Tucker
  • Jules JanickEmail author
Part of the Fascinating Life Sciences book series (FLS)


Twenty-one animal illustrations (zoomorphs) were identified in the Voynich Codex and the geographical location of their origins was determined. The species included invertebrates (jellyfish, crayfish), amphibians (frog or toad, caecilian), reptiles (three lizards), birds, and mammals (armadillo, coatimundi, jaguarundi, ocelot, paca, cattle, and sheep). All animals were present in Mesoamerica in the sixteenth century as either Spanish introductions (cattle and possibly sheep) or as native or indigenous New World species. Four images of animals – alligator gar, armadillo, coatimundi, and jaguarundi – clearly depict unique animals only found in Mexico and Central America. Presented together with other animals, plants, and a mineral, this information provides support for a Mesoamerican origin of the Voynich Codex.


Alligator gar Armadillo Coatimundi Eagle Jaguarundi Mexican crayfish Ocelot Paca Voynich 

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Elizabeth E. Flaherty
    • 1
  • Arthur O. Tucker
    • 2
  • Jules Janick
    • 3
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Forestry and Natural ResourcesPurdue UniversityWest LafayetteUSA
  2. 2.Department of Agriculture & Natural ResourcesDelaware State UniversityDoverUSA
  3. 3.Department of Horticulture & Landscape ArchitecturePurdue UniversityWest LafayetteUSA

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