Intraoperative Navigation: Techniques and Systems in Craniofacial Trauma

  • Harald EssigEmail author


Intraoperative navigation in its present form is the result of technical advances that have taken place over more than three decades. These started with the need to find anatomical targets accurately, to define surgical pathways without harming neighboring structures and, especially in cranio-maxillofacial surgery, to intraoperatively control the position of bony structures and implants. The introduction of navigation has resulted in a paradigm shift: surgical procedures must be planned preoperatively based on medical three-dimensional (3D) imaging, and the desired outcome must be defined in advance. After registering the patient’s anatomy with 3D imaging and devising a preoperative plan, navigation can be applied until the preplanned outcome is achieved. Quality assessment includes evaluation of intraoperative or postoperative 3D images and the virtual surgical plan.


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© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.University Clinic for Oral-Maxillofacial Surgery, Universitätspital–ZürichZürichSwitzerland

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