Osteosynthesis in Craniofacial Fractures

  • Nicolas Hardt
  • Peter KesslerEmail author


The craniofacial skeleton comprises 22 different bones and exhibits remarkable stability although it is partly composed of pneumatized bones. The bony areas delimit the cranial vault, the orbital cavities, the paranasal sinuses, and the oral cavity. Within the craniofacial skeleton, there are thicker load-bearing and thinner non-load-bearing bony regions (Ewers et al. 1995).


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Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Clinic of Cranio-Maxillofacial SurgeryLuzerner KantonsspitalLuzernSwitzerland
  2. 2.Clinic of Cranio-Maxillofacial SurgeryMaastricht University Medical CenterMaastrichtNetherlands

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