Advertisement

Nanobotany pp 195-233 | Cite as

Analytical Techniques in Nano Botany

  • Aneeqa Sabah Nazir
Chapter

Abstract

Nanotools and equipments are necessary for characterization, monitoring and analysis of natural and man-made synthesized materials. In recent time, frequent use of nanoparticles for growth and development of plant cells is making the time to time and efficient analysis to study the effect of nano-plant composites very crucial. The purpose of this chapter is to focus on analytical techniques, specifically to study the physico-chemical and molecular mechanism of nanoparticles in the field of Botany. Schematics and working principles of spectroscopic (UV-visible, IR-Raman, XRD), scanning (SEM, AFM)and tunneling (TEM and STM) microscopic techniques are explained in detail on the basis of optical and electron probe methods. Image production, data monitoring and processing for biological and nano-botany architectures are also discussed specifically by above described techniques.

References

  1. Amzallag A, Vaillant C, Jacob M, Unser M, Bednar J, Kahn JD, Dubochet J, Stasiak A, Maddocks JH (2006) 3D reconstruction and comparison of shapes of DNA minicircles observed by cryo-electron microscopy. Nucleic Acids Res 34(18)CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  2. Baram M, Kaplan WD (2008) Quantitative HRTEM analysis of FIB prepared specimens. J Microscopy 232(3):395CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Baranskaa M, Maciej R, Jan CD, Hartwig S, Rafal B (2013) Recent advances in raman analysis of plants: alkaloids, carotenoids, and polyacetylenes. Curr Anal Chem 9:108–127CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Barmparis GD, Zbigniew L, Nuria L, Remediakis IN (2015) Nanoparticle shapes by using Wulff constructions and first-principles calculations. Beilstein J Nanotechnol 6:361–368CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  5. Barnes PRF, Mulvaney R, Wolff EW, Robinson KA (2002) A technique for the examination of polar ice using the scanning electron microscope. J Microscopy 205(2):118–124CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Binnig G, Rohrer H, Gerber C, Weibel W (1982) Surface studies by scanning tunneling microscope. Phy Rev Lett 49:57CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Blackie EJ, Le R, Eric C, Meyer M, Etchegoin PG (2007) Surface enhanced raman scattering enhancement factors: a comprehensive study. J Phys Chem 37:13794–13803Google Scholar
  8. Boyle WS, Smith GE (1970) Charge-coupled semiconductor devices. Bell Sys Tech J 49:587–593CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Brandon D, Kaplan W D (2008). Microstructural characterization of materials, second edition, Chapter 5: Scanning electron microscopy, John Wiley & Sons Ltd, USA 185.Google Scholar
  10. Brożek-Mucha Z (2014) Scanning electron microscopy and X-ray microanalysis for chemical and morphological characterization of the inorganic component of gunshot residue: selected problems. Biomed Res Int. Article ID 428038Google Scholar
  11. Burgess J (1987) Under the microscope: a hidden world revealed. CUP Arch 11Google Scholar
  12. Butler HJ, Lorna A, Benjamin B, Gianfelice C, Kelly C, Jennifer D, Karen EW, Nigel JF, Benjamin G, Pierre LMH, Michael JW, Martin RMA, Nicholas S, Francis LM (2016) Using Raman spectroscopy to characterize biological materials. Nat Prot 11:664–687CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Danilatos GD (1990) Theory of the gaseous detector device in the ESEM. Adv Elect Electron Phys 78:1–102CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Donovan JJ (1992) In: Goldstein JI, Newbury DE, Echlin P, Joy D C, Fiori C, Lifshin E (eds) Scanning electron microscopy and x-ray microanalysis, 2nd edn, Plenum Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  15. Ellisman MH (2005) An historical perspective on digital imaging in transmission electron microscopy: Looking into the future. Microscopy Microanal 11:604–605CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Goldstein GI, Newbury DE, Echlin P, Joy DC, Fiori C, Lifshin E (1981) Scanning electron microscopy and x-ray microanalysis. Plenum, New YorkCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Goldstein JI, Newbury DI, Echlin P, Joy DC, Fiori C, Lifshin E (1992) Scanning electron microscopy and x-ray microanalysis, 2nd edn. Plenum Press, New YorkCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Hindmarsh JP, Russell AB, Chen XD (2007) Fundamentals of the spray freezing of foods—microstructure of frozen droplets. J Food Eng 78(1):136–150CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Hornyak GL, Tibbals HF, Joydeep D, John JM (2008) Introduction of nano science and nanotechnology, Chapter No: 3. CRC Press, Boca RatonCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Hortolà P (2010) Using digital color to increase the realistic appearance of SEM micrographs of bloodstains. Micron 41(7):904–908CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Hull D, Bacon J (2001) Introduction to dislocations, 4th edn. Butterworth-Heinemann, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  22. Jeffree CE, Read ND (1991) Ambient- and Low-temperature scanning electron microscopy. In: Hall JL, Hawes CR (eds) Electron microscopy of plant cells. Academic, London, pp 313–413CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Karnovsky MJ (1965) A formaldehyde-glutaraldehyde fixative of high osmolality for use in electron microscopy. J Cell Biol 27(2):137AGoogle Scholar
  24. Keirnan JA (2000) Formaldehyde, formalin, paraformaldehyde and glutaraldehyde: What they are and what they do. Microscopy Today 1:8–12CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Kelsall RW, Hamley IW, Geoghegan M (2005) Nanoscale science and technology. Wiley, LondonCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Kirkland E (1998) Advanced computing in electron microscopy. Springer, Heidelberg, pp 19–39CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Klein T, Buhr E, Frase CG (2012) TSEM: A review of Scanning Electron Microscopy in transmission mode and its applications. Adv Imaging Electron Phys 171:297–356CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Liu F, Junshu W, Kunfeng C, Dongfeng X (2010) Morphology study by using scanning electron microscopy. In: Méndez-Vilas A, Díaz J (eds) Microscopy: science, technology, applications and education. Formatex Research Center, Badajoz, pp 1781–1792Google Scholar
  29. Malick LE, Wilson RB, Stetson D (1957) Modified thiocarbohydrazide procedure for scanning electron microscopy: routine use for normal, pathological, or experimental tissues. Biotech Histochem 50(4):265–269Google Scholar
  30. Mancuso JF, Maxwell WB, Danilatos GD (1998) Secondary electron detector for use in a gaseous atmosphere. US patent 478518, issued at 11–15, 1998Google Scholar
  31. Manzer HS, Mohamed HA, Mohammad F, Mutahhar YA (2015) Chapter 2: role of nanoparticles in plants, Springer, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  32. Mehta A (2012). Ultraviolet-Visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy – derivation of Beer Lambert law in analytical chemistry. Available from: http://pharmaxchange.info/press/2012/04/ultraviolet-visible-uv-vis-spectroscopy-derivation-of-beer-lambert-law
  33. Nawa Y, Wataru I, Sheng L, Yoshimasa K, Susumu T, Chia-Yi F, Huan-Cheng C (2014) Multi-color imaging of fluorescent nanodiamonds in living HeLa cells using direct electron-beam excitation. Chem Phy Chem 15:721–726CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Petkov V, Ohta T, Hou Y, Ren Y (2007) Atomic-scale structure of nanocrystals by high-energy x-ray diffraction and atomic pair distribution function analysis: Study of FexPd100–x (x = 0, 26, 28, 48) nanoparticles. J Phys Chem C 111:714–720CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Phillips R (1961) Diamond knife ultra microtomy of metals and the structure of microtomed sections. Bri J Appl Phys 12(10):554CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Policarp H (2005) SEM examination of human erythrocytes in uncoated bloodstains on stone: use of conventional as environmental-like SEM in a soft biological tissue and hard inorganic material. J Microscopy 218(2):94–103CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Rahman MA (2014) First evidence of chitin in calcified algea: new insights into the calcification process of Clathromorphum compactum. Sci Rep 4:6162CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  38. Scalf J, West P (2007) Introduction to nanoparticle characterization with AFM, Pacific Nanotechnology, Inc., www.nanoparticles.pacifi cnanotech.comGoogle Scholar
  39. Schulz H (2014) Qualitative and quantitative FT-Raman analysis of plants, chapter 9. In: Baranska M (ed) Optical spectroscopy and computational methods in biology and medicine. Springer, DordrechtGoogle Scholar
  40. Seligman AM, Hannah LW, Hanker JS (1966) A new staining method for enhancing contrast of lipid-containing membranes and droplets in osmium tetroxide-fixed tissue with osmiophilic thiocarbohydrazide (TCH). J Cell Biol 30(2):424–432CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  41. Spence JCH, Zhou JM (1998) Large dynamic range, parallel detection system for electron diffraction and imaging. Rev Sci Instrum 59:2102CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Sugunan A, Petter M, Johan S, Jons GH, Joydeep D (2007) Nutrition-driven assembly of colloidal nanoparticles: Growing fungi assemble gold nanoparticles as microwires. Adv Mater 19:77–78CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Suzuki E (2002) High-resolution scanning electron microscopy of immunogold-labelled cells by the use of thin plasma coating of Osmium. J Microscopy 208(3):153–157CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Tay MZM, Nithin SK, Gabor LH, Joydeep D (2013) Hydrophobic/ hydrophobic switching on zinc oxide micro-textured surface. Appl Surf Sci 264:344–348CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Villanueva-Amadoz U, Alessandro B, Jesús M, Luis MS, José BD (2012) Focused ion beam nano-sectioning and imaging: a new method in characterisation of palaeopalynological. Grana 51:1–9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Wen X, Wang S, Ding Y, Wang ZL, Yang S (2005) Controlled growth of largearea, uniform, vertically aligned arrays of -fe2o3 nanobelts and nanowires. J Phy Chem B 109:215–220CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Wergin WP, Erbe EF(1994) Snow crystals: capturing snow flakes for observation with the low-temperature scanning electron microscope. Scanning 16, 17(1):41–50Google Scholar
  48. Wittke JH (2006) Effects of electron bombardment. Northern Arizona University. https://nau.edu/microanalysis/Microprobe/Interact-Effects.html
  49. Zach P, Sharon H, Sofiya K, Porat Z, Yehuda Z (2014) Green synthesis of gold nanoparticles using plant extracts as reducing agents. Int J Nanomed 9:4008–4021Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Aneeqa Sabah Nazir
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PhysicsLahore College for Women UniversityLahorePakistan

Personalised recommendations