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History and Epidemiology of Tattoos and Piercings: Legislation in the United States and in Europe

  • Anne E. Laumann
  • Nicolas Kluger
Chapter

Abstract

Tattooing and body piercing date back to early civilizations. In the past they were used during initiation rites or as an indication of social status. Not only has tattooing been used for medical purposes, decoration, and to mark group affiliation but also to identify criminals, prisoners, and slaves and for punishment. On the other hand, body piercing has a more limited history, although there is evidence, in ancient societies, of its use in the soft earlobe, lower lip, and nasal septum for the insertion of decorative pieces, as well as its use in the genital area for sexual inhibition or pleasure. It was hardly seen before the end of the 1980s in the advanced world. In general, it is still more common among women than men. These two forms of body modification may have different underlying motivations as fewer than a third of those with tattoos and half of those with body piercings have the other. Encouraged by modern sophisticated techniques and the absence of a widespread easily recognized downside, both activities have become increasingly common in the general population. At the same time, concern has increased related to associated social and medical issues both in the United States and more so in Europe. This has led to increased legislative attempts, often not enforced, in many countries related to the tattooing and body piercing of minors; the information, written and verbal, given to clients prior to the activity; the training and background of tattooists; the composition and sterility of materials inserted into the skin; and the hygiene of the studios.

Keywords

Tattooing Body piercing Epidemiology Public health Legislation 

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of DermatologyFeinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern UniversityChicagoUSA
  2. 2.Department of Dermatology, Venereology and AllergologyUniversity of Helsinki and Helsinki University Central Hospital, Skin and Allergies HospitalHelsinkiFinland
  3. 3.Department of DermatologyBichat-Claude Bernard Hospital, Assistance Publique–Hôpitaux de ParisParisFrance

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