Advertisement

Foods for Specific Consumer Groups

  • Silvia L. Schmidt
Chapter
Part of the Economic Analysis of Law in European Legal Scholarship book series (EALELS, volume 6)

Abstract

Conveying food information to consumers is a complex issue given both the vast array of European consumers, as well as the threefold purpose of the display of food information: it is required to communicate about the safety of a product and its ingredients, it assists consumers in making informed choices, and it is also a tool that may have an impact on the functioning of the internal market.

Food information is conveyed to all consumers. However, some more vulnerable consumers may require more targeted food information, be it because they are defenceless against certain commercial practices or be it because they have special dietary needs and therefore make use of foods for specific consumer groups. The question is how the vulnerability of consumers is protected with specific ad hoc legislation while maintaining and promoting the fundamental freedoms. In this chapter, we address generic and specific regulation. With regards to the latter, we will review the current European legislative framework for specific consumer groups, especially the way vulnerable consumer groups are protected against unfair practices using targeted food information.

References

  1. Albury D (2005) Fostering innovation in public services. Public Money Manage 25(1):51–56Google Scholar
  2. Anklam E, Battaglia R (2001) Food analysis and consumer protection. Trends Food Sci Technol 12(5–6):197–202CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bogue J, Coleman T, Sorenson D (2005) Determinants of consumers’ dietary behaviour for health-enhancing foods. Br Food J 107:4–16CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Chen K, Wang X-X, Song HW (2015) Food safety regulatory systems in Europe and China: a study of how co-regulation can improve regulatory effectiveness. J Integr Agric 14(11):2203–2217CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Commission Regulation (EC) No 41/2009 of 20 January 2009 concerning the composition and labelling of foodstuffs suitable for people intolerant to gluten, 2009, O.J. L 16/3.Google Scholar
  6. Commission Staff Working Paper Impact assessment accompanying the document proposal for a regulation of the European Parliament and of the Council on food intended for infants and young children and on food for special medical purposes. https://ec.europa.eu/food/sites/food/files/safety/docs/labelling_nutrition-special_groups_food-impact_assessment_en.pdf
  7. Consolidated Versions of the Treaty on European Union and the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union, 2016, O.J. C 202/1.Google Scholar
  8. Directive 2009/39/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 6 May 2009 on foodstuffs intended for particular nutritional uses, 2009, O.J. L 124/21.Google Scholar
  9. Ellison B, Lusk J, Davis D (2013) Looking at the label and beyond: the effects of calorie labels, health consciousness, and demographics on caloric intake in restaurants. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act 10:21CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. European Commission (2013a) Innovation Union [online]. http://ec.europa.eu/research/innovation-union/index_en.cfm?pg=why
  11. European Commission (2013b) Legislation on dietetic foods/Food for Specific Groups (FSG) [online]. http://ec.europa.eu/food/food/labellingnutrition/nutritional/index_en.htm
  12. European Commission (2014a) Europe 2020 [online]. http://ec.europa.eu/europe2020/index_en.htm
  13. European Commission (2014b) What is Horizon 2020? [online]. http://ec.europa.eu/programmes/horizon2020/en/what-horizon-2020
  14. European Commission (n.d.) Commission staff working paper impact assessment accompanying the document proposal for a Regulation of the European Parliament and of the Council on food intended for infants and young children and on food for special medical purposes [online]. http://ec.europa.eu/food/food/labellingnutrition/nutritional/docs/impact_assessment_en.pdf
  15. Eurostat (2006) European business – facts and figures, data 1995–2004 [online]. http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/documents/3217494/5671075/KS-BW-05-001-EN.PDF/ffc429a4-34ea-4edb-b0a7-7f655402708c?version=1.0
  16. Food Standards Agency (2010) Understanding of labelling terms “lactose free”, “milk free” or “dairy free”. https://www.food.gov.uk/science/research/allergy-research/allergy-labelling/understandingfoodlabellingterms
  17. Gabriel Y, Lang T (2015) The unmanageable consumer. Sage PublishingGoogle Scholar
  18. Hughes G, Bennett K, Hetherington M (2004) Old and alone: barriers to healthy eating in older men living on their own. Appetite 43:269–276CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Hunter W, Worsley T (2009) Understanding the older food consumer. Present day behaviours and future expectations. Appetite 52:147–154CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Incardona R, Poncibo C (2007) The average consumer, the unfair commercial practices directive, and the cognitive revolution. J Consum Policy 30:21–38CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Lesser W, Lynch S (2014) Costs of labelling genetically modified food products in NY State. Dyson School of Applied Economics and Management Cornell UniversityGoogle Scholar
  22. Macmaolain C (2007) EU food law: protecting consumers and health in a common market. Hart PublishingGoogle Scholar
  23. Meneely L, Strugnell C, Burns A (2009) Elderly consumers and their food store experiences. J Retail Consum Serv 16:458–465CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Nocella G, Kennedy O (2012) Food health claims – what consumers understand. Food Policy 37:571–580CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Press releases database (2014) Questions and Answers on Commission proposal replacing current framework legislation on dietetic foods. Press Release, 20 June 2011Google Scholar
  26. Regulation (EC) No 178/2002 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 28 January 2002 laying down the general principles and requirements of food law, establishing the European Food Safety Authority and laying down procedures in matters of food safety, 2002, O.J. L 31/1.Google Scholar
  27. Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 20 December 2006 on nutrition and health claims made on foods, 2006, O.J. L 404/9.Google Scholar
  28. Regulation (EU) No 1169/2011 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 25 October 2011 on the provision of food information to consumers, amending Regulations (EC) No 1924/2006 and (EC) No 1925/2006 of the European Parliament and of the Council, and repealing Commission Directive 87/250/EEC, Council Directive 90/496/EEC, Commission Directive 1999/10/EC, Directive 2000/13/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council, Commission Directives 2002/67/EC and 2008/5/EC and Commission Regulation (EC) No 608/2004 Text with EEA relevance, 2011, O.J. L 304/18.Google Scholar
  29. Regulation (EU) No 609/2013 2011 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 12 June 2013 on food intended for infants and young children, food for special medical purposes, and total diet replacement for weight control and repealing Council Directive 92/52/EEC, Commission Directives 96/8/EC, 1999/21/EC, 2006/125/EC and 2006/141/EC, Directive 2009/39/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council and Commission Regulations (EC) No 41/2009 and (EC) No 953/2009, 2013, O.J. L 181/35.Google Scholar
  30. Stuyck J, Terryn E, van Dyck T (2006) Confidence through fairness? The new directive on unfair business-to-consumer commercial practices in the internal market. Common Mark Law Rev 43:107–152Google Scholar
  31. Unberath H, Johnston A (2007) The double-headed approach of the ECJ concerning consumer protection. Common Mark Law Rev 44:1237–1284Google Scholar
  32. van Buul V, Brouns F (2015) Nutrition and health claims as marketing tools. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 55(11):1552–1560CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Verbeke W, Rutsaert P, Bonne K, Vermeir I (2013) Credence quality coordination and consumers’ willingness-to-pay for certified halal labelled meat. Meat Sci 95(4):790–797CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Wilson A, Meyer S, Webb T, Henderson J, Coveney J, McCullum D, Ward P (2015) How food regulators communicate with consumers about food safety. Br Food J 117(8):2129–2142CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Silvia L. Schmidt
    • 1
  1. 1.IFOAM EU - International Federation of Organic Agriculture MovementsBrusselsBelgium

Personalised recommendations