Moving from Former to Future Frontiers

  • Tim Skern
Part of the Learning Materials in Biosciences book series (LMB)


In this chapter, we will continue to examine variations on themes in protein structure. We will reproduce using modern techniques the first multiple sequence alignment that was based upon three-dimensional protein structures. Then, we will look at the structure of an activated complex of the adrenaline receptor and a heterotrimeric G-protein and examine the tricks that were necessary to determine the structure. With an eye to the future, we will examine a structure of the human spliceosome complex that was determined by the increasingly powerful technique of cryo-electron microscopy. The chapter finishes by returning to the structure of hemoglobin, this time also determined by cryo-electron microscopy. Hemoglobin is at present the smallest structure determined by this method, but it seems likely to lose this attribute very soon.


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Tim Skern
    • 1
  1. 1.Max F. Perutz LaboratoriesMedical University of ViennaViennaAustria

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