Postharvest Biology and Technology of Pear

  • Amit Nath
  • A. S. Panwar


The shelf life of pear fruit is very short and pears are susceptible to decay, mechanical damage, and moisture and nutritional losses during storage. The quality of pears after harvest depends on the storage temperature, response to ethylene in ripening, gene expression, cell wall degradation, chemical treatments, etc. Moreover, the shelf life and quality of pear fruits also depend on harvest maturity, application of coating materials, storage conditions, packaging materials used, and different postharvest treatments. This chapter deals with different aspects of postharvest biology and technology of pear fruits and their possible influences on quality during storage and shelf life.


Pear Postharvest biology Ethylene Ripening Cold storage Shelf life 


  1. Anon. (2010). Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. FAO. Retrieved from
  2. Bai, J. H., Yin, X. H., Whitaker, B. D., Deschuytter, K., & Chen, P. M. (2009). Combination of 1-methylcyclopropene and ethoxyquin to control superficial scald of ‘Anjou’ pears. HortTechnology, 19, 521–525.Google Scholar
  3. Benbow, J. M., & Sugar, D. (1999). Fruit surface colonization and biological control of postharvest diseases of pear by preharvest yeast applications. Plant Disease, 83, 839–844.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bhat, M., Ahsan, H., Banday, F., Dar, M., Wani, A. I., & Hassan, G. (2012). Effect of harvest dates, preharvest calcium sprays and storage period on physico-chemical characteristics of pear cv. Bartlett. Journal of Agricultural Research and Development, 2, 101–106.Google Scholar
  5. Chand-Goyal, T., & Spotts, R. A. (1996a). Control of postharvest pear diseases using natural saprophytic yeast colonists and their combination with a low dosage of thiabendazole. Postharvest Biology and Technology, 7, 51–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Chand-Goyal, T., & Spotts, R. A. (1996b). Enumeration of bacterial and yeast colonists of apple fruits and identification of epiphytic yeasts on pear fruits in the Pacific Northwest United States. Microbiological Research, 151, 427–432.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Chand-Goyal, T., & Spotts, R. A. (1997). Biological control of postharvest diseases of apple and pear under semi-commercial and commercial conditions using three saprophytic yeasts. Biological Control, 10, 199–206.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Chen, J. L., Wu, J. H., Wang, Q., Deng, H., & Hu, X. S. (2006). Changes in the volatile compounds and chemical and physical properties of Kuerle fragrant pear (Pyrus serotina Reld) during storage. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 54, 8842–8847.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Cronje, A., Crouch, E. M., Muller, M., Theron, M. K., Rijst, M. V. D., & Steyn, W. J. (2015). Canopy position and cold storage duration affects mealiness incidence and consumer preference for the appearance and eating quality of ‘Forelle’ pears. Scientia Horticulturae, 194, 327–136.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. DeEll, J. R., & Ehsani-Moghaddam, B. (2011). Timing of postharvest 1-methylcyclopropene treatment affects Bartlett pear quality after storage. Canadian Journal of Plant Science, 91, 853–858.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Defilippi, B. G., Kader, A. A., & Dandekar, A. M. (2005). Apple aroma: Alcohol acyltransferase, a rate limiting step for ester biosynthesis, is regulated by ethylene. Plant Science, 168, 1199–1210.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Dou-ShiJuan, Chen-KunSong, LuJunLiang, & Zheng, J. T. (2002). The storability and its regulatory mechanism of Huanghua pear (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai.) fruit as influenced by postharvest treatments. Agricultural Sciences in China, 1, 1238–1245.Google Scholar
  13. Dou-ShiJuan, Chen-KunSong, LuJunLiang, & Zheng, J. T. (2003). Effects of different postharvest treatments on storage of Huanghua pear fruit (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai) and its physiological basis. Scientia Agricultura Sinica, 36, 82–88.Google Scholar
  14. Drake, S. R. (1994). Elevated carbon dioxide storage of “Anjou” pears using purge-controlled atmosphere. Hortscience, 29, 299–301.Google Scholar
  15. Drake, S. R., Mielke, E. A., & Elfving, D. C. (2004). Maturity and storage quality of ‘Concorde’ pears. HortTechnology, 14, 250–256.Google Scholar
  16. Drake, S. R., Elfving, D. C., Pusey, P. L., & Kupferman, E. M. (2006). Fruit quality of “d’Anjou” pears after bin storage and late-season packing. Journal of Food Processing and Preservation, 30, 420–432.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Dussi, M. C., Sosa, D., & Calvo, G. (2002). Effects of ReTain™ on fruit maturity and fruit set of pear cultivars Williams and Packham’s Triumph. Acta Horticulturae, 596, 767–771.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Edna, P., Oleg, F., Revital, S. A., Susan, E. E., Elizabeth, J. M., & Ruth, B. A. (2014). Low oxygen pre-storage treatment is effective in reducing chilling injuries of deciduous fruit. International Journal of Postharvest Technology and Innovation, 4(1), 23–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Ekman, J. H., Clayton, M., Biasi, W. V., & Mitcham, E. J. (2004). Interactions between 1-MCP concentration, treatment interval and storage time for ‘Bartlett’ pears. Postharvest Biology and Technology, 31, 127–136.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. FAOSTAT. (2017). Food and Agriculture Organization Statistical Database. Retrieved December 24, 2017, from
  21. Fu, L., Cao, J., Li, Q., Lin, L., & Jiang, W. (2007). Effect of 1-methylcyclopropene on fruit quality and physiological disorders in Yali pear (Pyrus bretschneideri Rehd.) during storage. Food Science and Technology International, 13, 49–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Hansen, E., & Mellenthin, W. M. (1979). Commercial handling and storage practices for winter pears. Oregon State University Agricultural Experimental Station, Special Report 550.Google Scholar
  23. Hiwasa, K., Nakano, R., Hashimoto, A., Matsuzaki, M., Murayama, H., Inaba, A., & Kubo, Y. (2004). European, Chinese and Japanese pear fruits exhibit differential softening characteristics during ripening. Journal of Experimental Botany, 55, 2281–2290.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Hofstein, R., Fridlender, B., Chalutz, E., & Droby, S. (1994). Large-scale production and pilot testing of biological control agents for postharvest diseases. In C. L. Wilson & M. E. Wisniewski (Eds.), Biological control of postharvest diseases—Theory and practice (pp. 89–100). Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.Google Scholar
  25. Hrazdina, G., Kiss, E., Rosenfield, C. L., Norelli, J. L., & Aldwinckle, H. S. (2000). Down regulation of ethylene production in apples. In G. Hrazdina (Ed.), Use of agriculturally important genes in biotechnology (pp. 26–32). Amsterdam: IOS Press.Google Scholar
  26. Ippolito, A., & Nigro, F. (2000). Impact of preharvest application of biological control agents on postharvest diseases of fresh fruits and vegetables. Crop Protection, 19, 715–723.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Isidoro, N., & Almeida, D. P. F. (2006). α-Farnesene, conjugated trienols, and superficial scald in ‘Rocha’ pear as affected by 1-methylcyclopropene and diphenylamine. Postharvest Biology and Technology, 42, 49–56.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Jackson, J. E. (2003). Chapter 1: The growing of apples and pears. InBiology of apples and pears (pp. 4–20). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Janisiewicz, W. J. (1988). Biological control of diseases of fruit. In K. G. Mukergi & K. L. Garg (Eds.), Biocontrol of plant diseases (Vol. II, pp. 153–165). Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.Google Scholar
  30. Janisiewicz, W. J., & Korsten, L. (2002). Biological control of post-harvest diseases of fruits. Annual Review of Phytopathology, 40, 411–441.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Kader, A. A., & Watkins, C. B. (2000). Modified atmosphere packaging toward 2000 and beyond. HortTechnology, 10(3), 483–486.Google Scholar
  32. Kader, A. A., Zagory, D., & Kerbel, E. L. (1989). Modified atmosphere packaging of fruits and vegetables. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, 28, 1–30.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Kou, X., Wu, M., Li, L., Wang, S., Xue, Z., Liu, B., & Fei, Y. (2015). Effects of CaCl2 dipping and pullulan coating on the development of brown spot on ‘Huangguan’ pears during cold storage. Postharvest Biology and Technology, 99, 63–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Kowalczyk, D., Kordowska-Wiater, M., Emil Zieba, E., & Baraniak, B. (2017). Effect of carboxymethylcellulose/candelilla wax coating containing potassium sorbate on microbiological and physicochemical attributes of pears. Scientia Horticulturae, 218(2017), 326–333.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Kubo, Y., Hiwasa, K., Owino, W. O., Nakano, R., & Inaba, A. (2003). Influence of time and concentration of 1-MCP application on the shelf life of pear ‘La France’ fruit. HortScience, 38, 1414–1416.Google Scholar
  36. Kwon, Y. B., Park, S. K., Myunh, S. I., & Hong, S. J. (2003). Effect of postharvest treatments on fruit quality during storage of ‘Niitaka’ pear. Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, 21, 114–119.Google Scholar
  37. Larrigaudiere, C., Lentheric, I., Pintó, E., & Vendrell, M. (2001). Short-term effects of air and controlled atmosphere storage on antioxidant metabolism in conference pears. Journal of Plant Physiology, 158, 1015–1022.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Layne, R. E. C., & Quamme, H. A. (1975). Pears. In J. Janick & J. N. Moore (Eds.), Advances in fruit breeding (pp. 38–70). West Lafayette, IN: Purdue University Press.Google Scholar
  39. Li, F., Zhang, X., Song, B., Li, J., Shang, Z., & Guan, J. (2013). Combined effects of 1-MCP and MAP on the fruit quality of pear (Pyrus bretschneideri Reld cv. Laiyang) during cold storage. Scientia Horticulturae, 164, 544–551.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Li, D., Cheng, Y., Dong, Y., Shang, Z., & Guan, J. (2017). Effects of low temperature conditioning on fruit quality and peel browning spot in ‘Huangguan’ pears during cold storage. Postharvest Biology and Technology, 131, 68–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Lin, D., & Zhao, Y. Y. (2007). Innovations in the development and application of edible coatings for fresh and minimally processed fruits and vegetables. Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety, 6, 60–75.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Lum, G. B., DeEll, J. R., Hoover, G. J., Shelp, B. J., Shelp, B. J., & Bozzo, G. G. (2017). 1-Methylcylopropene and controlled atmosphere modulate oxidative stress metabolism and reduce senescence-related disorders in stored pear fruit. Postharvest Biology and Technology, 129, 52–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Matteson Heidenreich, M. C., Corral-Garcia, M. R., Momol, E. A., & Burr, T. J. (1997). Russet of apple fruit caused by Aureobasidium pullulans and Rhodotorula glutinis. Plant Disease, 81, 339–342.Google Scholar
  44. Meheriuk, M., Prange, R. K., Lidster, P. D., & Porritt, S. W. (1994). Postharvest disorders of apples and pears. Ottawa: Agriculture Canada Publication 1737/E. ISBN:0-662-21237-1.Google Scholar
  45. Meir, S., & Bramlage, W. J. (1988). Antioxidant activity in ‘Cortland’ apple peel and susceptibility to superficial scald after storage. Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science, 113, 412–417.Google Scholar
  46. Moya-Leon, M. A., Vergara, M., Bravo, C., Montes, M. E., & Moggia, C. (2006). 1-MCP treatment preserves aroma quality of ‘Packham’s Triumph’ pears during long-term storage. Postharvest Biology and Technology, 42, 185–197.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Mwaniki, M. W., Mathooko, F. M., Hiwasa, K., Tateishi, A., Yokotani, N., Ushijima, K., Nakano, R., Inaba, A., & Kubo, Y. (2007). Beta-galactosidase and alpha-L-arabinofuranosidase activities and gene expression in European and Chinese pear fruit during ripening. Journal of the Japanese Society for Horticultural Science, 76(1), 85–90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Nath, A., Deka, B. C., Singh, A., Patel, R. K., Paul, D., Misra, L. K., & Ohza, H. (2012). Extension of shelf life of pear fruits using different packaging materials. Journal of Food Science and Technology, 49(5), 556–563.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Occhi, G., & Mignani, I. (1995). Calcium physiology and metabolism in fruit trees. Acta Horticulturae, 383, 15.Google Scholar
  50. Olivas, G. I., & Barbosa-Canovas, G. V. (2005). Edible coatings for fresh-cut fruits. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, 45, 657–670.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Omala, K., & Trzak, M. (1994). Occurrence of cork spot (pit) in ‘Alexander Lucas’ pears depends on fruit mineral element content. Acta Horticulturae, 368, 570.Google Scholar
  52. Oms-Oliu, G., Soliva-Fortuny, R., & Martin-Belloso, O. (2008). Edible coatings with antibrowning agents to maintain sensory quality and antioxidant properties of fresh-cut pears. Postharvest Biology and Technology, 50, 87–94.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Paliyath, G., & Murr, D. P. (2008). Biochemistry of fruits. In G. Paliyath, D. P. Murr, A. K. Handa, & S. Lurie (Eds.), Postharvest biology and technology of fruits, vegetables, and flowers (1st ed.). Ames: Wiley-Blackwell. ISBN: 978-0-8138-0408-8/2008.Google Scholar
  54. Pasquariello, M. S., Rega, P., Migliozzi, T., Capuano, L. R., Scortichini, M., & Petriccione, M. (2013). Effect of cold storage and shelf life on physiological and quality traits of early ripening pear cultivars. Scientia Horticulturae, 162, 341–150.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Pechous, S. W., Watkins, C. B., & Whitaker, B. D. (2005). Expression of alpha-farnesene synthase gene AFS1 in relation to levels of alpha-farnesene and conjugated trienols in peel tissue of scald-susceptible ‘Law Rome’ and scald-resistant ‘Idared’ apple fruit. Postharvest Biology and Technology, 35, 125–132.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Poovaiah, J. W. (1993). Biochemical and molecular aspects of calcium action. Acta Horticulturae, 326, 139.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Qing, F., & Shiping, T. (2001). Postharvest biological control of grey mold and blue mold on apple by Cryptococcus albidus (Saito) Skinner. Postharvest Biology and Technology, 21, 341–350.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Raese, J. T. (1994). Effect of calcium sprays on control of black end, fruit quality, yield and mineral composition of ‘Barlett’ pears. Acta Horticulturae, 367, 314.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Raese, J. T., & Drake, S. R. (2006). Calcium foliar sprays for control of alfalfa greening, cork spot, and hard end in ‘Anjou’ pears. Journal of Plant Nutrition, 29, 543–552.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Rath, A. C., Kang, I. K., Park, C. H., Yoo, W. J., & Byun, J. K. (2006). Foliar application of aminoethoxyvinylglycine (AVG) delays fruit ripening and reduces pre-harvest fruit drop and ethylene production of bagged “Kogetsu” apples. Plant Growth Regulation, 50, 91–100.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Rizzolo, A., Cambiaghi, P., Grassi, M., & Zerbini, P. E. (2005). Influence of 1-methylcyclopropene and storage atmosphere on changes in volatile compounds and fruit quality of conference pears. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 53, 9781–9789.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Roberts, R. G. (1990). Postharvest biological control of gray mold of apple by Cryptococcus laurentii. Phytopathology, 80, 526–530.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Rojas-Grau, M. A., Soliva-Fortuny, R., & Martin-Belloso, O. (2009). Edible coatings to incorporate active ingredients to fresh-cut fruits: A review. Trends in Food Science and Technology, 20, 438–447.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Sandhu, S. S., & Singh, A. P. (2000). Effect of harvesting dates and individual seal packaging on the pear fruit cv. Le Conte during cold storage. Haryana Journal of Horticultural Sciences, 29, 48–52.Google Scholar
  65. Sapers, G. M., & Miller, R. L. (1998). Browning inhibition in fresh-cut pears. Journal of Food Science, 63, 342–346.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Saquet, A., Streif, J., & Bangerth, F. (2003). Brown heart incidence in ‘Conference’ pears as affected by ATP and ADP levels and membrane lipid alterations during controlled atmosphere storage. Acta Horticulturae, 600, 839–842.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Sharma, S., & Rao, T. V. R. (2015). Xanthan gum based edible coating enriched with cinnamic acid prevents browning and extends the shelf-life of fresh-cut pears. LWT-Food Science and Technology, 62, 791–800.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Sharma, R., Singh, D., & Singh, R. (2009). Biological control of post-harvest diseases of fruits and vegetables by microbial antagonists: A review. Biological Control, 50(3), 205–221.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Shen, T. (1980). Pears in China. HortScience, 15(1), 13–17.Google Scholar
  70. Sisler, E. C., Reid, M. S., & Yang, S. F. (1986). Effect of antagonists of ethylene action on binding of ethylene in cut carnations. Plant Growth Regulation, 4, 213–218.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Spotts, R. A., & Chand-Goyal, T. (1997). Combinations of biocontrol yeasts and eradicant activity of yeasts for postharvest pear diseases (abstr.) Phytopathology, 87, S93.Google Scholar
  72. Spotts, R. A., Sanderson, P. G., Lennox, C. L., Sugar, D., & Cervantes, L. A. (1998). Wounding, wound healing and staining of mature pear fruit. Postharvest Biology and Technology, 13, 27–36.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Steward, D., Oparka, J., Johnstone, C., Iannetta, P. P. M., &Davies, H. V. (1999). Effect of modified packaging (MAP) on soft fruit quality. In: Annual Report of the Scottish Crop Research Institute for 1999 (pp. 119–124). Invergowrie, Dundee, Scotland: Scottish Crop Research Institute.Google Scholar
  74. Sugar, D., & Spotts, R. A. (1993). The importance of wounds in infection of pear fruit by Phialophora malorum and the role of hydrostatic pressure in spore penetration of wounds. Phytopathology, 83, 1083–1086.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Sugar, D., & Spotts, R. A. (1999). Control of postharvest decay in pear by four laboratory grown yeasts and two registered biocontrol products. Plant Disease, 83, 155–158.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Sugar, D., Roberts, R. G., Hilton, R. J., Righetti, T. L., & Sanchez, E. E. (1994). Integration of cultural methods with yeast treatment for control of postharvest fruit decay in pear. Plant Disease, 78, 791–795.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Sun-XiSheng, Wang-WenHui, Li-ZhiQiang, Feng-XiaoYuan, & Zhang, Z. Y. (2000). Experiment of CA storage for Jinxiang pear variety. China Fruits, 4, 15–17.Google Scholar
  78. Teixido, N., Usall, J., & Vinas, I. (1999). Efficacy of preharvest and postharvest Candida sake biocontrol treatments to prevent blue mould on apples during cold storage. International Journal of Food Microbiology, 50, 203–210.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Trinchero, G. D., Sozzi, G. O., Covatta, F., & Fraschina, A. A. (2004). Inhibition of ethylene action by 1-methylcyclopropene extends postharvest life of “Bartlett” pears. Postharvest Biology and Technology, 32, 193–204.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Usall, J., Teixidó, N., Fons, E., & Viñas, I. (2000). Biological control of blue mould on apple by a strain of Candida sake under several controlled atmosphere conditions. International Journal of Food Microbiology, 58, 83–92.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. Vanoli, M., Grassi, M., & Rizzolo, A. (2016). Ripening behavior and physiological disorders of ‘Abate Fetel’ pears treated at harvest with 1-MCP and stored at different temperatures and atmospheres. Postharvest Biology and Technology, 111, 274–285.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Villalobos-Acuna, M. G., Biasi, W. V., Flores, S., Jiang, C. Z., Reid, M. S., Willits, N. H., & Mitcham, E. J. (2011). Effect of maturity and cold storage on ethylene biosynthesis and ripening in ‘Bartlett’ pears treated after harvest with 1-MCP. Postharvest Biology and Technology, 59, 1–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Wang, Y., & Sugar, D. (2013a). Internal browning disorder and fruit quality in modified atmosphere packaged ‘Bartlett’ pears during storage and transit. Postharvest Biology and Technology, 83, 72–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Wang, Y., & Sugar, D. (2013b). Ripening behavior and quality of modified atmosphere packed ‘Doyenne du Comice’ pears during cold storage and simulated transit. Postharvest Biology and Technology, 81, 51–59.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Wang, J., Zhou, X., Zhou, Q., Cheng, S., Wei, B., & Ji, S. (2017a). Low temperature conditioning alleviates peel browning by modulating energy and lipid metabolisms of ‘Nanguo’ pears during shelf life after cold storage. Postharvest Biology and Technology, 131, 10–15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Wang, Y., Li, B., Zhang, X., Peng, N., Mei, Y., & Liang, Y. (2017b). Low molecular weight chitosan is an effective antifungal agent against Botryosphaeria sp. and preservative agent for pear (Pyrus) fruits. International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, 95, 1135–1143.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. Watkins, C. B. (2000). Responses of horticultural commodities to high carbon dioxide as related to modified atmosphere packaging. HortTechnology, 10, 501–506.Google Scholar
  88. Watkins, C. B., Bramlage, W. J., & Cregoe, B. A. (1995). Superficial scald of Granny Smith apples is expressed as a typical chilling injury. Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science, 120, 88–94.Google Scholar
  89. Watkins, C. B., Nock, J. F., & Whitaker, B. D. (2000). Responses of early, mid and late season apple cultivars to postharvest application of 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) under air and controlled atmosphere storage conditions. Postharvest Biology and Technology, 19, 17–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Whitaker, B. D., Solomos, T., & Harrison, D. J. (1997). Quantification of alpha-farnesene and its conjugated trienol oxidation products from apple peel by C-18-HPLC with UV detection. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 45, 760–765.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Whitaker, B. D., Nock, J. F., & Watkins, C. B. (2000). Peel tissue alpha-farnesene and conjugated trienol concentrations during storage of “White Angel” × “Rome Beauty” hybrid apple selections susceptible and resistant to superficial scald. Postharvest Biology and Technology, 20, 231–241.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Whitaker, B. D., Villalobos-Acuña, M., Mitcham, E. J., & Mattheis, J. P. (2009). Superficial scald susceptibility and α-farnesene metabolism in ‘Bartlett’ pears grown in California and Washington. Postharvest Biology and Technology, 53, 43–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Williams, M. W., & Patterson, M. E. (1964). Non volatile organic acids and core breakdown of Bartlett pears. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 12, 80–83.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Wisniewski, M. E., & Wilson, C. L. (1992). Biological control of postharvest diseases of fruits and vegetables: Recent advances. HortScience, 27, 94–98.Google Scholar
  95. Wisniewski, M., Droby, S., Chalutz, E., & Eilam, Y. (1995). Effects of Ca+2 and Mg+2 on Botrytis cinerea and Penicillium expansum in vitro and on the biocontrol activity of Candida oleophila. Plant Pathology, 44, 1016–1024.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Xiao, C. L., Zhu, L., Luo, W., Song, X., & Deng, Y. (2010). Combined action of pure oxygen pretreatment and chitosan coating incorporated with rosemary extracts on the quality of fresh-cut pears. Food Chemistry, 121, 1003–1009.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Xiao, Z., Luoa, Y., Luob, Y., & Wang, Q. (2011). Combined effects of sodium chlorite dip treatment and chitosan coatings on the quality of fresh-cut d’Anjou pears. Postharvest Biology and Technology, 62, 319–326.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Xie, X., Song, J., Yan Wang, Y., & Sugar, D. (2014). Ethylene synthesis, ripening capacity, and superficial scald inhibition in 1-MCP treated ‘d’Anjou’ pears are affected by storage temperature. Postharvest Biology and Technology, 97, 1–10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Zerbini, P. E. (2002). The quality of pear fruit. Acta Horticulturae, 596, 805–810.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Zhou, R., Mob, Y., Li, Y., Zhaoc, Y., Zhang, G., & Hu, Y. (2008). Quality and internal characteristics of Huanghua pears (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai, cv. Huanghua) treated with different kinds of coatings during storage. Postharvest Biology and Technology, 49, 171–179.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Zhou, R., Li, Y., Yan, L., & Xie, J. (2011). Effect of edible coatings on enzymes, cell-membrane integrity, and cell-wall constituents in relation to brittleness and firmness of Huanghua pears (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai, cv. Huanghua) during storage. Food Chemistry, 124, 569–575.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Amit Nath
    • 1
  • A. S. Panwar
    • 1
  1. 1.ICAR—Indian Institute of Farming Systems ResearchMeerutIndia

Personalised recommendations